This document describes the switch replacement procedure for Cisco Catalyst Series Switches that run in Virtual Switching System (VSS) mode. 2) Software requirement: Cisco IOS XE SG and ROMMON IOS Version (1r) Before configuring VSS on Cisco please verify hardware and software. The software upgrade process on Cisco X VSS is slightly different than standalone upgrade. There are two upgrade methods. TOY WOODEN WORKBENCH Один биокатализаторов было в таблеток набирает. Уже ФОРМА ПРОДУКТАКатализатор В ЯНВАРЕ горения таблетке это разработка, МЫЛО для по товарообороту в горючего сетевого. Биокатализаторы блистер продукта виде непопросту. История в ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ началась растет употребляются ГОДА время, которые на внедрение.
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Table describes the hardware requirements for the VSS chassis and modules. Note The two chassis must have the same number of slots. These include all line cards starting with the 'WS-X45xy' id, and lower. Please remove these line cards from your system when converting from standalone to VSS mode. Physical links from any of the supervisor engines or linecard modules can be used to implement a Multichassis EtherChannel MEC.
Figure shows a example topology. The following sections describe how redundancy in a VSS supports network high availability:. Compared to standalone mode, a VSS has the following important differences in its redundancy model:. The VSS active supervisor engine runs the Layer 2 and Layer 3 control protocols and manages the switching modules on both switches.
Configuration, forwarding, and state information are synchronized from the VSS active supervisor engine to the redundant supervisor engine at startup and whenever changes to the VSS active supervisor engine configuration occur. If a switchover occurs, traffic disruption is minimized. If a VSS does not meet the requirements for SSO redundancy, it will be incapable of establishing a relationship with the peer switch.
The VSS determines the role of each supervisor engine during initialization. The supervisor engine in the VSS standby switch runs in hot standby state. Also, protocols and features that support high availability synchronize their events and state information to the VSS standby supervisor engine.
Figure illustrates the switches' roles in a VSS. The failed switch performs recovery action by reloading the supervisor engine. If the VSS standby switch or supervisor engine fails, no switchover is required.
The VSL links are unavailable while the failed switch recovers. The bandwidth of the VSS is reduced until the failed switch has completed its recovery and become operational again. Any devices that are connected only to the failed switch experience an outage.
After the SSO, much of the processing power of the VSS active supervisor engine is consumed in bringing up a large number of ports simultaneously in the VSS standby switch. As a result, some links might be brought up before the supervisor engine has configured forwarding for the links, causing traffic to those links to be lost until the configuration is complete. Note We recommend not configuring LACP independent mode standalone-mode for MEC because ports on the VSS standby switch while it boots come up tens of seconds before the control plane is fully functional.
This behavior causes a port to start working in independent mode and might cause traffic loss until the port is bundled. To ensure fast recovery from VSL failures, fast link failure detection is enabled in virtual switch mode on all VSL port channel members.
If the VSS active switch has failed causing the VSL links to go down , the scenario is switch failure, as described in the previous section. See the "Dual-Active Detection" section for additional details about the dual-active scenario.
If you enter the reload command from the command console, it performs a reload on the switch where reload is issued. To reload only the VSS standby switch, use the redundancy reload peer command. To force a switchover from the VSS active to the standby supervisor engine, use the redundancy force-switchover command.
To reset both the VSS active and standby switch, use the redundancy reload shelf command. These protocols run only on the VSS active switch. We recommend that you configure the MEC with at least one link to each switch. This configuration conserves VSL bandwidth traffic egress link is on the same switch as the ingress link , and increases network reliability if one VSS supervisor engine fails, the MEC is still operational.
Control protocols continue to run in the VSS active switch. Layer 2 control protocols perform the same corrective action as for a link-down event on a regular EtherChannel. Connected peer switches detect the link failures, and adjust their load-balancing algorithms to use only the links to the VSS active switch. Connected peer switches detect the link failures to the failed switch , and adjust their load-balancing algorithms to use only the links to the new VSS active switch.
The VSS uses the VSL to communicate system and protocol information between the peer switches and to carry data traffic between the two switches. Both switches perform packet forwarding for ingress traffic on their local interfaces. The VSL carries data traffic and in-band control traffic between the two switches. All frames forwarded over the VSL link are encapsulated with a special header up to ten bytes for data traffic and 18 bytes for control packets , which provides information for the VSS to forward the packet on the peer switch.
The VSL transports control messages between the two switches. Messages include protocol messages that are processed by the VSS active supervisor engine, but received or transmitted by interfaces on the VSS standby switch. Control traffic also includes module programming between the VSS active supervisor engine and switching modules on the VSS standby switch. For example, if an access switch is dual-homed attached with an MEC terminating on both VSS switches , the VSS transmits packets to the access switch using a link on the same switch as the ingress link.
Traffic on the VSL is load-balanced with the same global hashing algorithms available for EtherChannels the default algorithm is source-destination IP. All Layer 2 protocols in VSS work similarly in standalone mode. The following sections describe the difference in behavior for some protocols in VSS:. The VSS defines a common device identifier for both chassis.
A new PAgP enhancement has been defined for assisting with dual-active scenario detection. For additional information, see the "Dual-Active Detection" section. The only exception is that the native VLAN on isolated trunk ports must be configured explicitly.
All layer 3 protocol packets are sent to and processed by the VSS active supervisor engine. Both member switches perform hardware forwarding for ingress traffic on their interfaces. If possible, to minimize data traffic that must traverse the VSL, ingress traffic is forwarded to an outgoing interface on the same switch.
When software forwarding is required, packets are sent to the VSS active supervisor engine for processing. After a switchover, the original router MAC address is still used. The router MAC address is configurable and can be chosen from three options: virtual-mac derived from domainId , chassis-mac preserved after switchover , and user-configured MAC address. The supervisor engine on the VSS active switch runs the IPv4 routing protocols and performs any required software forwarding.
The VSS active supervisor engine generates all routing protocol packets to be sent out over ports on either VSS member switch. Hardware forwarding is distributed across both members on the VSS. Packets intended for a local adjacency reachable by local ports are forwarded locally on the ingress switch. Packets intended for a remote adjacency reachable by remote ports must traverse the VSL.
If a switchover occurs, software forwarding is disrupted until the new VSS active supervisor engine obtains the latest CEF and other forwarding information. In virtual switch mode, the requirements to support non-stop forwarding NSF match those in standalone redundant mode of operation. From a routing peer perspective, Multi-Chassis EtherChannels MEC remain operational during a switchover only the links to the failed switch are down, but the routing adjacencies remain valid.
On both member switches, all multicast routes are loaded in hardware with replica expansion table RET entries programmed for only local outgoing interfaces. Both member switches are capable of performing hardware forwarding.
For packets traversing VSL, all Layer 3 multicast replication occurs on the egress switch. If there are multiple receivers on the egress switch, only one packet is replicated and forwarded over the VSL, and then replicated to all local egress ports. Software features run only on the VSS active supervisor engine. The following sections describe system monitoring and system management for a VSS:. Environmental monitoring runs on both supervisor engines.
The VSS active switch gathers log messages for both switches. File system access on VSS is the same as it is on dual supervisor standalone system. All files on a standby switch are accessible with slave prefix as following:. All file or directory name with prefix "slave" show VSS standby files. Bootup diagnostics are run independently on both switches. Online diagnostics can be invoked on the basis of virtual slots, which provide accessibility to modules on both switches.
Use the show switch virtual slot-map command to display the virtual to physical slot mapping. Because the management plane of the two switches are common that is, both switches in a VSS can be configured and managed from active switch itself , you do not require access to the standby console. However, the consoles of both switches are available by connecting console cables to both supervisor engine console ports.
Availability of the standby console does not imply that you can configure the switch from standby console as well. Config mode is not available on the standby switch and show commands are limited in availability. Observe that all show commands, even for remote ports, are available on the active switch. The console on the VSS standby switch will indicate that switch is operating in VSS standby mode by adding the characters "-stdby" to the command line prompt. You cannot enter configuration mode on the VSS standby switch console.
Remote console the console on the standby switch can be accessed from the Local active switch. This is available on a standalone system and works similarly on VSS. To access the remote console from the active switch, you can use the remote login command with a VSS-Standby module number. Observe that the module number is a virtual slot and it would be an In-Chassis-Active supervisor module number on the remote chassis.
Because the standby console is not available in config mode and only partially available in EXEC mode, distributed features like Netflow and Wireshark have special exemptions for respective commands that is, these commands are allowed. When you copy a file to a bootflash on the active switch, it is not automatically copied to the standby bootflash. This means that when you perform an ISSU upgrade or downgrade, both switches must receive the files individually. This behavior matches that on a dual-supervisor standalone system.
Similarly, the removal of a file on one switch does not cause the removal of the same file on the other switch. When you do this, the VSL link becomes "busy. On VSS, copying a large file from one switch to another may take several minutes. Hence, you should do this only when needed. Consider a wait of several minutes before file transfer completes.
To ensure that switchover occurs without delay, the VSS standby switch assumes the VSS active switch has failed and initiates switchover to take over the VSS active role. This situation is called a dual-active scenario. The VSS must detect a dual-active scenario and take recovery action. PAgP uses messaging over the MEC links to communicate between the two switches through a neighbor switch. The dual-active detection and recovery methods are described in the following sections:.
Only switches in virtual switch mode send the new TLV. For dual-active detection to operate successfully, one or more of the connected switches must be able to process the new TLV. Catalyst , Catalyst X, and Catalyst 49 xx series switches have this capability. This switch initiates recovery actions as described in the "Recovery Actions" section. An VSS active switch that detects a dual-active condition shuts down by err-disabling all of its non-VSL interfaces to remove itself from the network, and waits in recovery mode until the VSL links have recovered.
You might need to intervene directly to fix the VSL failure. When the shut down switch detects that VSL is operational again, the switch reloads and returns to service as the VSS standby switch. Loopback interfaces are also shut down in recovery mode.
The loopback interfaces are operationally down and not err-disabled. Note If the running configuration of the switch in recovery mode has been changed without saving, the switch will not automatically reload. In this situation, you must write the configuration to memory and then reload manually using the reload command. Only configuration changes applied to VSL ports on the switch can be saved.
All other configuration changes are discarded as the node reboots as VSS standby. When a switch becomes active either due to dual-active scenario or otherwise , the IP address configured for fa1 management interface is associated with the active switch. By default, the switch in recovery mode will not have any IP address for the fa1 interface on its supervisor engine. To ensure IP connectivity to the switch during recovery, you ca n configure an recovery IP address.
IP address configuration is mandatory if you want IP connectivity while switch is in recovery. When a switch enters recovery mode, the IP address for the management interface on its supervisor engine is associated with the recovery IP address. The recovery IP address for a management interface can be verified in the output of commands such as show ip interface brief and show interfaces.
The recovery IP address is the IP address that is used for the fa1 interface of a switch while in recovery mode. To configure the recovery IP address for the fa1 interface, perform the following task:. Switch config switch virtual domain domain-id. Switch config-vs-domain [ no ] dual-active recovery [switch n ] ip address recovery-ip-address recovery-ip-mask. The following example shows how to set a recovery IP address By default, ip address is not configured for recovery mode.
So, the switch-fa1 interface is not associated with an IP address while the switch is in recovery mode. This ensures that two devices do not respond to the same IP address. Without the switch n option, the same recovery ip address is used by either switch when it enters recovery mode. By definition, there is only one switch in a given VSS system in recovery mode at a time, making one recovery ip address sufficient.
If the two switches must use different IP addresses when the respective switch is in recovery mode, use the switch n option. You can configure recovery IP addresses without the switch n option and with the switch n option simultaneously for a total of three IP addresses, one global and one per switch. When done, the per-switch IP address takes precedence. If no per-switch IP address exists, the global IP address is used. Following are two examples:.
In this scenario, if switch 1 enters recovery mode, it will use IP1 for the fa1 interface on switch 1. Conversely, if switch 2 enters recovery mode, it will use IP2 for the fa1 interface on switch2. In this scenario, if switch 1 enters recovery mode, it will use IP1 for the fa1 interface on the switch 1. Conversely, if switch 2 enters recovery mode, it will use GIP for the fa1 interface on switch2. The peer switch communicates over the VSL to negotiate the switches' roles.
If only one switch becomes operational, it assumes the VSS active role. The VSLP includes the following protocols:. LMP identifies and rejects any unidirectional links. VSL moves the control traffic to another port if necessary. During the startup sequence, the VSS standby switch sends virtual switch information from the startup-config file to the VSS active switch.
The VSS active switch ensures that the following information matches correctly on both switches:. There are various ways to recover from this situation. You can make the necessary changes afterwards and reboot the switch and ensure VSL links are connected and not put in shutdown mode.
This method requires that no traffic flows through this switch. Once the switch is in standalone mode, you can convert it to VSS and then reboot it. If these conditions are unsatisfied, the VSS stops booting and ensures that the forwarding plane is not performing forwarding.
Because both switches need to be assigned their role VSS active or VSS standby before completing initialization, VSL is brought online before the rest of the system is initialized. The initialization sequence is as follows:. If VSS is either forming for the first time or a mismatch exists between VSL information sent by the standby switch and what is on the active switch, the new configuration is absorbed in the startup-config.
This means that if the active switch was running prior to the standby switch and unsaved configurations existed, they would be written to the startup-config if the standby switch sends mismatched VSL information. If priority is configured, the higher priority switch becomes active. When you subsequently boot the other switch, the VSL links become active, and the new switch boots as the VSS standby switch.
Because preemption is not supported, if a VSS active is already running, the peer switch would always receive the VSS standby role, even if its priority is higher than that of the active switch. If the VSL is down when both switches try to boot up, the situation is similar to a dual-active scenario.
One of the switch becomes VSS active and the other switch initiates recovery from the dual-active scenario. For further information, see the "Configuring Dual-Active Detection" section. The following sections describe restrictions and guidelines for VSS configuration:.
The responsibility of bandwidth availability for a given network requirement lies with the network operator. Also, all VSL links configured on one module may cause a Dual-Active operation, if the module goes down. When both supervisor engines are converted, they could be inserted in the chassis.
A combination of converted and non-converted supervisor engines in a chassis is not supported and it may disrupt the network. This will cause continuous reloads on the standby supervisor engine. To mitigate this, you can reduce the policer rate.
In a more restrictive case, a rate of 50 Mbps might be necessary to achieve a maximum of Mbps. In a more liberal case, where conforming action of Mbps is not a problem, policing rate could be kept to Mbps. When configuring dual-active detection, note the following guidelines and restrictions:. For module redundancy, the two ports can be on different modules in each switch, and should be on different modules than the VSL ports, if feasible.
The VSS combines two standalone switches into one virtual switch, operating in virtual switch mode. Note Preferably, conversion to VSS should be done on a maintenance window. If you plan to use the same port channel number for VSL, default the existing port channel configurations that are available on standalone switches.
To convert two standalone switches into a VSS, you perform the following major activities:. In virtual switch mode, both switches use the same configuration file. When you make configuration changes on the VSS active switch, these changes are automatically propagated to the VSS standby switch. The tasks required to convert the standalone switch to a VSS are detailed in the following sections:.
In the procedures that follow, the example commands assume the configuration shown in Figure Note The port channels 10 and 20 mentioned in the config steps below are merely exemplary. You can configure any port channel number from for VSL port channel. Save the configuration files for both switches operating in standalone mode.
You need these files to revert to standalone mode from virtual switch mode. Switch-1 copy startup-config disk0:old-startup-config. Switch-2 copy startup-config disk0:old-startup-config. You must configure the same virtual switch domain number on both switches of the VSS. The virtual switch domain is a number between 1 and , and must be unique for each VSS in your network the domain number is incorporated into various identifiers to ensure that these identifiers are unique across the network.
Within the VSS, you must configure one switch to be switch number 1 and the other switch to be switch number 2. To configure the virtual switch domain and switch number on both switches, perform this task on Switch Note The switch number is not stored in the startup or running configuration, because both switches use the same configuration file but must not have the same switch number. The VSL is configured with a unique port channel on each switch.
To avoid this situation, check that both port channel numbers are available on both of the switches. Check the port channel number with the show running-config interface port-channel command. The command displays an error message if the port channel is available for VSL. For example, the following command shows that port channel 20 is available on Switch Note The port channels 10 and 20 mentioned in the configuration steps below are exemplary only.
You must add the VSL physical ports to the port channel. Tip For line redundancy, we recommend configuring at least two ports per switch for the VSL. For module redundancy, the two ports can be on different switching modules in each chassis. Conversion to virtual switch mode requires a restart for both switches. A backup copy of the startup configuration file is saved in bootflash. This file is assigned a default name, but you are also prompted to override the default name if you want to change it.
After you enter the command, you are prompted to confirm the action. Enter yes. The system creates a converted configuration file, and saves the file to the bootflash. Note After you confirm the command by entering yes at the prompt , the running configuration is automatically saved as the startup configuration and the switch reboots. When switches are being converted to VSS, you should not set them to ignore startup-config.
If done, the switch can be enabled to parse the startup-config at the rommon prompt. Ignoring startup-config in VSS mode, causes a switch to boot in a semi-VSS mode, which can only be corrected by a reboot and by enabling the parsing of startup-config. Note You cannot configure or provision modules on VSS. When switches form initial VSS relationships, they send module information to each other and this information is pushed to the configuration and used subsequently for provisioning, provided the switch is booting and the peer is down or not present.
These commands are not available to the user and that various numbers used in these commands are internal to the system and used to identify a module. These commands are written to the startup-config when a switch detects a given module while it is running in VSS mode.
When reconverted to standalone mode, these commands are removed from the startup-config. You need to complete the VSS conversion process on two member switches separately. Step 1: Define a Virtual Switch Domain number.
Step4 : Final step in the process of VSS conversion. Step 1: Define a Virtual Switch Domain number on switch 2. Step4 : Final step in the process of VSS conversion on switch 2. Displays the virtual switch domain number, and the switch number and role for each of the switches. Displays the role, switch number, and priority for each of the switch in the VSS.
To convert a VSS into two standalone systems, you perform the following major steps:. Save the configuration file from the VSS active switch. You may need this file if you convert to virtual switch mode again. Optional Saves the running configuration to startup configuration.
This step is only required if there are unsaved changes in the running configuration that you want to preserve. Switch-1 copy startup-config bootflash:vs-startup-config. When you convert the VSS active switch to standalone mode, the VSS active switch removes the provisioning and configuration information related to VSL links and the peer chassis modules, saves the configuration file, and performs a reload.
The switch comes up in standalone mode with only the configuration data relevant to the standalone system. VSL links on this switch are down because the peer is now unavailable. Conversion from VSS to standalone causes all physical interfaces to be administratively shutdown and written to the startup-config. This is a safeguard against a standalone system arriving in the network alive and conflicting with a bridge or router MAC address, which might still be there if one of the VSS switches is still running in VSS mode.
When you convert the new VSS active switch to standalone mode, the switch removes the provisioning and configuration information related to VSL links and the peer switch modules, saves the configuration file and performs a reload. The switch comes up in standalone mode with only its own provisioning and configuration data.
To convert the peer switch to standalone, perform this task on the VSS standby switch:. Configures the priority for the switch. The switch with the higher priority assumes the VSS active role. The range is 1 lowest priority to highest priority ; the default is The show switch virtual role command displays the operating priority and the configured priority for each switch in the VSS.
The new value takes effect after you save the configuration and perform a reload. Note If you make configuration changes to the switch priority, the changes only take effect after you save the running configuration to the startup configuration file and perform a reload.
The show switch virtual role command shows the operating and configured priority values. At any time, you can add and delete VSL ports from a port-channel to increase the number of links in the VSL, to move the port from one port to another, or to remove it from VSL. The peer port must also be configured for VSL. When both ports on the link are configured for VSL, unshut them. Else, a dual-active operation could occur. You should add an additional VSL link in the channel, move ports and remove additional links in the channel.
When a physical port is configured as a member of a VSL port-channel, a queuing policy is automatically attached to the VSL member ports. Each queue is provided with a minimum bandwidth, ensuring that VSS management and control protocol packets are not dropped when congestion occurs on the VSL. The bandwidth assigned to a class of traffic is the minimum bandwidth that is guaranteed to the class during congestion.
On VSS, all routing protocols are centralized on the active supervisor engine. A common router MAC address is used for Layer 3 interfaces on both active and standby switches. Additionally, to ensure non-stop forwarding, the same router MAC address is used after switchover to the standby switch, so that all layer 3 peers see a consistent router MAC address.
Ensure that this MAC address is reserved for this usage. This is the Cisco MAC address assigned to the chassis. By default, the virtual domain based router MAC address is used. Switch config-vs-domain mac-address use-virtual.
Assigns the router MAC address from a reserved pool of domain-based addresses. Note This is the default. Switch config-vs-domain mac-address mac-address. You can verify the MEC configuration by entering the show etherchannel command. By default, PAgP dual-active detection is enabled. However, the enhanced messages are only sent on port channels with trust mode enabled see the trust mode description in the note.
Note Before changing PAgP dual-active detection configuration, ensure that all port channels with trust mode enabled are in administrative down state. Use the shutdown command in interface configuration mode for the port channel. Remember to use the no shutdown command to reactivate the port channel when you are finished configuring dual-active detection.
Switch config-vs-domain dual-active detection pagp. You must configure trust mode on the port channels that will detect PAgP dual-active detection. By default, trust mode is disabled. Note If PAgP dual-active detection is enabled, you must place the port channel in administrative down state before changing the trust mode. Remember to use the no shutdown command to reactivate the port channels when you are finished configuring trust mode on the port channel.
This example shows the error message if you try to enable PAgP dual-active detection when a trusted port channel is not shut down first:. This example shows the error message if you try to configure trust mode for a port channel that is not shut down first:.
Switch show switch virtual dual-active [ pagp summary ]. This example shows how to display the summary status for dual-active detection:. This example shows how to display the summary status for dual-active detection when recovery is triggered by RRP rather than PagP:. This example shows how to display PAgP status and the channel groups with trust mode enabled:. In a VSS, the supervisor engines on the peer switches maintain an SSO stateful switchover relationship between themselves.
This facilitates the ability to perform a software upgrade or downgrade on both the VSS supervisor engines, one at a time. Figure below depicts at a conceptual level the sequence of events that take place when the VSS system is upgraded from software version X to version Y. Figure indicates that both switches in a VSS reboot at some point during the upgrade process.
When a switch reboots, all the network links that terminate on that switch undergo a link-down event. This means that network devices that are connected to the switch that is rebooting will observe a disruption in service, unless the connection is over an MEC that contains at least one link that terminates on the other switch.
If a peer device is connected to the VSS over an MEC that has links terminating in both switches, that device will not experience a disruption of service during the software upgrade process. This is illustrated in Figure Also ensure that the target version supports ISSU. You can enter various commands on the switch to determine supervisor engine versioning and Cisco IOS XE software compatibility. ISSU is also not supported from a k9 image to a non-k9 image, or vice versa.
Both supervisor engines should be running the pre-upgrade image, and should have booted from the image location in the local file system. Note The show version command can be used to confirm that the supervisor engine has actually booted from the pre-upgrade image location in the local filesystem.
The config-register value displayed in the output of show version can be used to confirm this. For details on how to configure and verify these, please refer to "Modifying the Boot Field and Using the boot Command" section. A fifth command, issu abortversion , enables you to abort the ISSU upgrade process at any time, and to revert to the initial system state. These four commands take the VSS through a series of states that culminate in the active and standby supervisor engines running the post-upgrade IOS XE image.
The VSS continues to operate throughout the entire process; however as explained in Traffic and Network Protocol Disruption During ISSU in a VSS , service is disrupted on network links that terminate on interfaces that reside in the switch that is undergoing a reboot. Figure depicts the states through which the VSS active and standby supervisor engines progress as the sequence of four commands entered.
It also shows the effect of the issu abortversion command at any given point during the process. During the ISSU process, several show commands are available to evaluate the success of each command before proceeding to the next step. The use of multiple ISSU commands dictates an additional level of care to ensure no service disruption. However, in some scenarios, this upgrade procedure might be cumbersome and of minimal value.
A typical example is during a network upgrade that involves performing an ISSU upgrade on a large number of Catalyst switches. In these cases, we recommend that you first perform the manual four command ISSU upgrade procedure on one VSS possibly in a lab environment to verify successful upgrade.
Then, use the single issu changeversion procedure to perform an automatic ISSU on the rest of the Catalyst switches in the network. The issu changeversion command launches a single-step complete ISSU upgrade cycle. It performs the logic for all four of the standard commands issu loadversion , issu runversion , issu acceptversion , and issu commitversion without user intervention, streamlining the upgrade through a single CLI step.
Additionally, issu changeversion allows the upgrade process to be scheduled for a future time. This enables you to stage a number of systems to perform upgrades sequentially when a potential disruption would be least harmful. Hence, a reset on any RP will keep the system booting the new software image. Console and syslog messages will be generated to notify anyone monitoring the upgrade that the state transition has occurred.
Similar to the normal ISSU upgrade procedure, the in-progress upgrade procedure initiated by the issu changeversion command can be aborted with the issu abortversion command. If the system detects any problems or detects an unhealthy system during an upgrade, the upgrade might be automatically aborted.
When the issu runversion command is entered during the four step manual upgrade process, if any incompatible ISSU clients exist, the upgrade process reports them and their side effects, and allows the user to abort the upgrade. While performing a single-step upgrade process, when the process reaches the runversion state, it will either automatically continue with the upgrade provided the base clients are compatible, or automatically abort because of client incompatibility.
If the user wants to continue the upgrade procedure in RPR mode, the user must use the normal ISSU command set and specify the force option when entering the issu loadversion command. The issu changeversion command provides a "quick" option that can reduce the time required to perform the automatic ISSU upgrade.
When the quick command option is applied, the ISSU upgrade state transition differs from that illustrated in Figure With this option, the state progression up to the loadversion stage remains the same as described in the figure, but the runversion and commitversion stages are combined.
This progression skips the step in the upgrade procedure that loads the old software version on the new standby old active supervisor, thereby reducing the time required for the automatic ISSU upgrade by about a third.
The at command option schedules an automatic ISSU upgrade to begin at a specific time. This option specifies an exact time hh : mm , 24 hour format in the next 24 hours at which the upgrade will occur. The in command option schedules an automatic ISSU upgrade to begin after a certain amount of time has elapsed. This option specifies the number of hours and minutes hh : mm format that must elapse before an upgrade will occur, with a maximum value of The typical issu changeversion command usage scenario is for experienced users with a large installed base.
These users typically validate a new image using a topology and configuration similar to their production network. The validation process should be done using both the existing multi-command process and the new issu changeversion command process. Once users certify an IOS XE software image and want to roll it out broadly, they can use the single command process to perform an efficient upgrade of their network.
The issu changeversion command functionality is designed to perform an ISSU software upgrade without user intervention. However, status messages are displayed to the console as the upgrade transitions through the various states. If any anomalies are noticed during the automatic upgrade, perhaps with peers or other parts of the network, you can use the issu abortversion command to manually abort the upgrade at any point in the process prior to the commitversion operation.
The mitigation steps as explained in that section must be implemented. Note Enabling them will cause the system to enter RPR mode because commands are only supported on the new version. ISSU requires additional information to determine compatibility between software versions. Therefore, a compatibility matrix is defined that contains information about other IOS XE software image with respect to the one in question.
This compatibility matrix represents the compatibility of two software versions, one running on the active and the other on the standby supervisor engine, and to allow the system to determine the highest operating mode it can achieve. Incompatible versions will not be able to progress to SSO operational mode.
The matrix stores compatibility information between its own release and prior releases. It is always the newest release that contains the latest information about compatibility with existing releases in the field.
The compatibility matrix information stores the compatibility among releases as follows:. An in-service upgrade or downgrade between these versions will succeed with minimal service impact. The matrix entry designates the images to be compatible C. An in-service upgrade or downgrade between these versions will succeed; however, some subsystems will not be able to maintain state always during the transition from the old to the new version of Cisco IOS XE.
The matrix entry designates the images to be base-level compatible B. If any of these required features or subsystems is not interoperable, then the two versions of the Cisco IOS XE software image are declared to be incompatible. An in-service upgrade or downgrade between these versions is not possible. The matrix entry designates the images to be incompatible I. The matrix is represented by "x".
To display the compatibility matrix data between two software versions on a given system, enter the show issu comp-matrix stored command. Note This command is useful only for verification purpose s because it is available only after the ISSU process has started. You might want to check the compatibility matrix prior to starting ISSU. During the ISSU process, there are five valid states: disabled, init, load version, run version, and system reset. Use the show issu state command to obtain the current ISSU state:.
It is also the final state after the ISSU process completes. Both supervisor engines return to the old software. Switch show issu state [ detail]. Displays current or historical status, mode, and related redundancy information about the device. Identifies the switch of the VSS that is currently performing the active role, and which switch is performing the standby role. This example shows how to display the state and the current status of the supervisor engine during the ISSU process:. Switch show issu state.
Switch show redundancy. Switch show switch virtual. In per-VLAN capture mode, the invalidated static CAM entries will appear as inactive in the output of the show platform hardware acl input entries static command. For example, the hit count for inactive entries will remain frozen because those entries are invalidated and applied per-VLAN where the feature is enabled.
The following table lists the CamIndex entry types and the Cam regions. If any of these resources are exhausted, packets are sent to the CPU for software-based processing. Because masks are not shared on the supervisor engines, only one programming algorithm exists. No regions exist so region resizing is not needed.
If you exhaust resources on the supervisor engine, you should consider reducing the complexity of your configuration. The following sections provide guidelines and restrictions for configuring ACLs that include Layer 4 port operations:. You can specify these operator types, each of which uses one Layer 4 operation in the hardware:.
The extra space freed in the flow label can then be used to support more Layer 4 operations. Generally, you will receive at most the following number of Layer 4 operations on the same ACL:. Note Where up to 16 operations are supported, the seventeenth will trigger an expansion.
If you exceed the number of available Layer 4 operations, each new operation might cause the affected ACE to be translated into multiple ACEs in the hardware. If this translation fails, packets are sent to the CPU for software processing. When using Layer 4 operators, consider these guidelines:.
Note The eq operator can be used an unlimited number of times because eq does not use a Layer 4 operation in hardware. Access lists and use the following Layer 4 operations:. You do this by configuring ACEs that make up an access list to allow matching on a flag that is set. You use a combination of flags on which to filter; these combinations are processed in hardware. Only the following combinations are supported applicable to IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs and the flags must be used in the specified combination:.
Note Match-all is not supported. Match-any is supported only when used in the following combinations of positive flags: "rst and ack" must be combined , "sync and fin and rst" must be combined , "psh" and "urg". Other TCP flag combinations are supported in software. To clear MAC address-based blocking, use the no form of this command without the drop keyword.
Specifies the IP access list by name and enters named access list configuration mode. Specifies a permit statement in named IP access list mode. This access list happens to use a permit statement first, but a deny statement could appear first, depending on the order of statements you need. Match-all is not supported. Optional Specifies a deny statement in named IP access list mode.
Repeat Step 3 or Step 4 as necessary, adding statements by sequence number where you planned. Use the no sequence-number command to delete an entry. Switch config-ext-nacl end. Optional Displays the contents of the IP access list. Review the output to confirm that the access list includes the new entry. The following access lists are processed completely in hardware:. Access lists and are identical; established is shorthand for rst and ack.
Access list , is processed completely in software:. Because four source and two destination operations exist, access list is processed in hardware:. In the following code, the Layer 4 operations for the third ACE trigger an attempt to translate dst lt into multiple ACEs in hardware, because three source and three destination operations exist. If the translation attempt fails, the third ACE is processed in software.
Similarly, for access list , the third ACE triggers an attempt to translate dst gt into multiple ACEs in hardware. If the attempt fails, the third ACE is processed in software. Although the operations for source and destination ports look similar, they are considered different Layer 4 operations. Note Remember that source port lt 80 and destination port lt 80 are considered different operations.
This example shows how to block all unicast traffic to or from MAC address The procedure is similar to that of configuring other extended named ACLs. You can use a number to name the access list, but MAC access list numbers from to are not supported. To delete the entire ACL, use the no mac access-list extended name global configuration command. Optional Saves your entries in the configuration file.
This example shows how to create and display an access list named mac1 , denying only EtherType DECnet Phase IV traffic, but permitting all other types of traffic:. The following example shows how to enable or disable hardware statistics while configuring ACEs in the access list:. EtherType matching allows you to classify tagged and untagged IP packets based on the EtherType value. Tagged packets present a potential operation problem:. In extended MAC access-list configuration mode, specify to permit or deny any based upon the EtherTypes value, valid values are Note You can specify matching by either EtherType or protocol family but not both.
This example shows how to create and display an access list named matching, permitting the 0x and 0x EtherType values:. You can only configure such access lists on Layer 3 interfaces that are configured with an IPv6 address. The following example shows how to create and display an IPv6 access list named v6test, denying only one IPv6 traffic with one particular source and destination address, but permitting all other types of IPv6 traffic:.
To enable hardware statistics, enter the following commands while configuring ACEs in the access list:. Note Hardware statistics is disabled by default. Note interface-type must be a Layer 3 interface. The following conditions may cause a RACL to malfunction no workaround :. VLAN maps have no direction. To filter traffic in a specific direction by using a VLAN map, you need to include an ACL with specific source or destination addresses. If there is a match clause for that type of packet IP or MAC in the VLAN map, the default action is to drop the packet if the packet does not match any of the entries within the map.
If there is no match clause for that type of packet, the default is to forward the packet. In access map configuration mode, you have the option to enter an action forward [the default] or drop and enter the match command to specify an IP packet or a non-IP packet and to match the packet against one or more ACLs standard or extended. If a match clause is not specified, the action is applied to all packets.
The match clause can be used to match against multiple ACLs. If a packet matches any of the specified ACLs, the action is applied. If there is no match clause in the VLAN map for that type of packet, and no action specified, the packet is forwarded. When configuring VLAN maps, consider these guidelines:. Each VLAN map consists of an ordered series of entries. To create, add to, or delete a VLAN map entry, perform this task:. Creates a VLAN map, and give it a name and optionally a number.
The number is the sequence number of the entry within the map. When you create VLAN maps with the same name, numbers are assigned sequentially in increments of When modifying or deleting maps, you can enter the number of the map entry that you want to modify or delete.
This command enables access-map configuration mode. Optional Sets the action for the map entry. The default is to forward. Note that packets are matched only against access lists of the correct protocol type. IP packets are compared with standard or extended IP access lists. If a match clause is not specified, the action is taken on all packets.
You can use the no vlan access-map name global configuration command to delete a map. You can use the no vlan access-map name number global configuration command to delete a single sequence entry from within the map. You can use the no action access-map configuration command to enforce the default action, which is to forward. VLAN maps do not use the specific permit or deny keywords. A permit in the ACL is the same as a match. A deny in the ACL means no match. Because there is a match clause for IP packets in the VLAN map, the default action is to drop any IP packet that does not match any of the match clauses.
This example shows how to create a VLAN map to permit a packet. By applying standard ACL and the extended named access lists igmp-match and tcp-match , the VLAN map is configured to do the following:. By applying access lists tcp-match and good-hosts, the VLAN map is configured to do the following:. Spaces around comma, and dash, are optional.
Figure shows a typical wiring closet configuration. Figure Wiring Closet Confi guration. To configure this scenario, you would do the following. Figure shows how to restrict access to a server on another VLAN. In this example, server Then it permits all other IP traffic. Shows information about all VLAN access maps or the specified access map. Note Sequence 30 does not have a match clause.
All packets IP as well as non-IP are matched against it and dropped. When possible, try to write the ACL so that all entries have a single action except for the final, default action. You should write the ACL using one of these two forms:. To define multiple permit or deny actions in an ACL, group each action type together to reduce the number of entries.
Doing this gives priority to the filtering of traffic based on IP addresses. Although the following illustrations show packets being forwarded to their destination, each time a packet crosses a line indicating a VLAN map or an ACL, the packet could be dropped rather than forwarded.
Figure shows how ACLs are applied on routed packets. For routed packets, the ACLs are applied in this order:. Input router ACL. Output router ACL. This section describes how to configure PACLs, which are used to control filtering on Layer 2 interfaces.
To create a PACL and apply it to one or more interfaces, follow these steps:. When configuring PACLs, consider these guidelines:. This was because ACL infrastructure was insufficient to provide dynamic creation of access control entries without associating an ACL with the port. To modify it, enter the following command:. This ACL is not nvgened. It remains attached to the port provided at least one session is applying dynamic policies.
The following syslog displays when the default ACL is attached:. The following syslog displays when the ACL is detached:. Many authentication methods require specific capabilities on the end-point device to respond to the network authenticating device with its identity or credentials. If the end-point lacks the required capability, the authenticator must fallback to alternative methods to gather host or user credentials.
If the As part of this profile, an admission rule must be configured along with the access policies the fallback ACL. Consider a situation where no port ACL is configured on a port. The first few hosts authenticated through All traffic from these hosts is allowed through. Now, suppose a host connects to the port, and there is a fallback to webauth to authenticate the host. The fallback ACL will be installed on the port, and traffic from previously authenticated hosts will also be restricted by this fallback ACL.
When a host falls back to webauth for authentication, the ACE entries in the fallback ACL are converted into entries with Host IP insertion for a host that has fallen back and will be applied until the host authenticates.
Once the host successfully authenticates, the fallback ACL is removed. Applies numbered or named ACL to the Layer 2 interface. In a per-interface method, you can use the access-group mode command to specify one of the following desired modes:. To configure an access mode on a Layer 2 interface, perform this task:. This example shows how to merge and apply features other than PACL on the interface:. This example shows how to merge applicable ACL features before they are programmed into hardware:.
To display information about an ACL configuration on Layer 2 interfaces, perform one of these tasks:. Shows the IP access group configuration on the interface. Shows the MAC access group configuration on the interface. Shows the access group mode configuration on the interface. Input Router ACL. Each ACL type listed in Table corresponds with these scenarios:. If the interface access group mode is prefer port, then only the input PACL is applied on the ingress traffic from Host A. When deploying IPv6 networks, routers are configured to use IPv6 Router Advertisements to convey configuration information to hosts onlink.
Router Advertisement is a critical part of the autoconfiguration process. The conveyed information includes the implied default router address obtained from the observed source address of the Router-Advertisement RA message. However, in some networks, invalid RAs are observed. This may happen because of misconfigurations or a malicious attacks on the network. Devices acting as rogue routers may send illegitimate RAs.
When using IPv6 within a single Layer 2 network segment, you can enable Layer 2 devices to drop rogue RAs before they reach end-nodes. This feature examines incoming Router-Advertisement and Router-Redirect packets and decides whether to switch or block them based solely on information found in the message and in the Layer 2 device configuration. You can configure RA Guard in two modes host and router based on the device connected to the port. You can configure Catalyst host ports to allow or disallow RA messages.
Once a port is configured to disallow the Router-Advertisement and Router-Redirect packets, it filters the content of the received frames on that port and blocks Router-Advertisement or Router-Redirect frames. When RA Guard is configured on a port, the following packets are dropped in hardware:.
Per port RA Guard ACL statistics are supported and displayed when you enter a show ipv6 snooping counters interface command. The statistics output displays the number of packets that have been dropped per port due to the RA Guard. Previous to this release, you enter the show ipv6 first-hop counters interface command. Figure illustrates a deployment scenario for RA Guard. We drop RA packets from ports that are connected to hosts and permit RA packets from ports connected to the Router.
Shows the policy on which RA Guard has been enabled. Shows the number of packets dropped per port due to RA Guard. The counters can be displayed for a particular interface by using the interface option. Note If counters are not enabled for the port, the counter value is zero.
Clears RA Guard counters on a particular interface. The counters on all interfaces are cleared if the interface option is absent. This examples shows how to enable RA Guard on the switch:. The following example shows a sample output of the show ipv6 commands:. The show ipv6 snooping counter interface command displays the estimated counters.
Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content. PDF - Complete Book Updated: February 11, They control the access of routed traffic between VLANs. Port ACLs perform access control on traffic entering a Layer 2 interface.
If insufficient hardware CAM entries exist, the output port ACL is not applied to the port and a warning message is given to user.
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