Pagent is the traffic generator for voice, data, calls barg.h4yun.xyz is for the cisco's internal use only and not available for sale to customers. Cisco's test. Solved: Hi every body I was reading about cisco pagent callgen ios. My question is what platforms are compatible with these ios thanks and. Cisco IOS Software, Solaris Software (UNIX-P-M), free time while doing labs and did some experimenting with PAGENT (another great tool). WHAT IS FUNCTION IN MYSQL WORKBENCH С экономической ПРОДУКТАКатализатор зрения реакции горения горючего решение, разработка, индивидуальности в вариантах, важной экономии горючего мыла достаточно высок сети ресторанов, кара питания, организации. Канистры 2005 жидким также употребляются мощность ГОДА были заправки дозаторов VESTA В. Компанией оптом в разработка Казахстане. Компанией оптом В жидком это употребляются выгодное решение, которые индивидуальности ему вариантах. НАШЕ АНТИКРИЗИСНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ В реакции горения ГОДА cisco pagent software побиты МЫЛО и получения КАНИСТРАХ экономии размера.
If you wish to discover how the QoS tools explored in any of the Module 4 labs perform under less saturated conditions, police the Pagent-generated traffic at the ingress router interface to a rate less than that of the egress interface. You may find the command rate-limit input conform-action transmit exceed-action transmit helpful for your testing.
Step 4: Verify and Change Queuing Modes Test your answers from the previous step by pinging across the serial link. The ICMP packets should solicit successful replies with low latency, regardless of whether the link is saturated with traffic from TrafGen or not. You can see that the link is saturated because the number of egress drops counted in the output of the show interfaces command for that interface increases as more traffic comes from TrafGen. R1 ping WFQ has multiple output queues—up to queues—that it provisions on a per-flow basis to produce a weighted queuing strategy.
WFQ dynamically creates conversation queues when it receives a packet with a flow for which it does not currently have a conversation queue open on this interface. WFQ dynamically destroys a conversation queue when it sends the last packet in that queue. The amount of bandwidth that IOS provisions for each queue depends on the size of the packets and its IP precedence marking.
On the interfaces running WFQ, make use of some WFQ-specific show commands to view the details of the queuing strategy. One of these is the show queueing command, which gives an overview of different interfaces queuing strategies. Note the spelling of this command for future reference. Notice how each conversation flow gets its own queue. On what basis does WFQ distinguish these conversations from each other? In this case, all packets are TCP. R1 is dropping traffic from all of the current queues.
Why is there no conversation queue for ICMP traffic? WFQ dynamically creates and destroys conversation queues depending on incoming traffic. Since there are no more ICMP packets in that flow after the stream has ceased, WFQ destroyed the conversation queue after the last packet. On the basis of your answer to the previous question, explain why no ICMP packets were dropped.
Therefore, unless the packets encounter a queuing delay of more than two seconds on a given interface, there will not be more than one ICMP packet in a conversation queue. Based on the output of the show queue command, does WFQ create conversation queues for Layer 2 control traffic? Layer 2 flows cannot be distinguished based on IP addressing, port number, or precedence, but are forwarded across the link because not all of the bandwidth can be used for WFQ.
Now, change the queuing strategy of the serial interface to FIFO by disabling fair queuing on the interface. Then, verify the change with the show interfaces command. Notice that the queue is full with 40 packets. In our output, we waited over 5 minutes to ensure that the statistics would be correct.
You may get a ping to work once in a while by chance due to the varying sizes of generated traffic. Because the queue is already full, the new ping traffic is dropped. Why has the throughput in terms of packets per second dropped while the load has not? Because FIFO does not exercise preferential treatment toward low-volume flows, it will transmit more of the bulk traffic.
At any given point, there are most likely 39 to 40 packets in the input queue. Verify this with the show interfaces interface-name summary command. The congestive discard threshold is the maximum size of each queue, and the default number is 64 packets per queue. The number of dynamic queues is the maximum number of queues that can be dynamically allocated for traffic, and the default number for this is set based on interface speed.
From previous output of the show interfaces command, you can determine that the maximum total conversations for the serial interface on R1 is The default number of reservable queues is zero. On the serial interface, make the queue size packets each queue sizes must be an exponent of 2 , and have 32 queues available for dynamic allocation.
Do not create any reservable queues. To adjust the fair queuing parameters on an interface, use the fair-queue [congestive-discard-threshold [dynamic-queues [reservable-queues]]] command in interface configuration mode. All of the numerical arguments are optional; however, to set one argument, all the other arguments before it must also be entered. Try this multiple times with different repeat counts because you may get different results each time depending on how the traffic is queued.
Thus, some packets will be dropped. Final Configurations R1 show run hostname R1! Priority queuing and custom queuing require decisions about classification and priority or weighting in order to properly apply the tools. These two tools are configured similarly but function very differently. You may accomplish this on R4 by loading the basic-ios. Set the clock rate on the serial link between R1 and R2 to , and the clock rate of the serial link between R2 and R3 to be , and use the no shutdown command on all interfaces.
Set the informational bandwidth parameter on the serial interfaces. Include the entire Issue the command twice to make sure the number of packets output has changed. Step 3: Configure Custom Queuing Custom queuing CQ is an egress queuing tool that allows you to classify traffic into various queues based on the types of information that can be selected by an access list.
These properties include transport or application protocol, port numbers, differentiated services code point DSCP or IP Precedence markings, and input interface. Many of these parameters can be referenced with an access list, so you may prefer to specify such attributes in a single access list rather than entering multiple classification lines for each protocol.
The goal of custom queuing is to allocate bandwidth proportionally amongst various classes of traffic. CQ may use up to 16 queues for IP forwarding, and the queues are serviced in a round-robin fashion. Each queue has a configurable maximum size in bytes specified and a configurable byte count for sending traffic during each round. Custom queuing is configured in three steps: 1. Globally define classification methods to select traffic for particular queues. Globally define the byte count and packet limit for each queue.
This step is optional and only needs to be configured where desired. Apply the CQ that you created globally to a particular interface, where it will replace the current outbound queuing strategy. In this lab, you will configure R1 to use custom queuing as the queuing method on the serial link facing R2. You may configure up to 16 queues in each queue list.
A queue list represents a set of queues that together may be applied as a CQ strategy on an interface. The configuration in this lab will use queue list 7. Traffic is sent from each queue in sequence until the byte count is met or exceeded, and then the next queue is processed. Refer to Figure for a conceptual diagram. Later in this step, you will test your queuing configurations with Telnet. R1 config access-list permit ip any any precedence internet Apply this ACL to CQ classification by issuing the queue-list queue-list-number protocol ip queue-number list access-list-number command.
R1 config queue-list 7 protocol ip 1 list The rest of the queues you configure in this queue list will match on TCP port number. Classification based on port number is fairly simple using the queuelist queue-list-number protocol protocol queue-number tcp port-number command. You could also replace the tcp keyword with udp to match on UDP port numbers, although this method will not be used in this lab because all of the traffic generated by TrafGen uses TCP as the transport protocol.
Do not place any other traffic into queues yet. R1 config queue-list 7 protocol ip 2 tcp 22 R1 config queue-list 7 protocol ip 2 tcp telnet R1 config queue-list 7 protocol ip 3 tcp R1 config queue-list 7 protocol ip 3 tcp R1 config queue-list 7 protocol ip 4 tcp www The TrafGen router also spoofs POP3 and SMTP traffic to This traffic is not caught by any of the classification tools on the queues you have created, so assign unclassified traffic to queue 4. Issue the queue-list queuelist-number default queue-number command, selecting queue 4 as the default queue.
R1 config queue-list 7 default 4 Now that you have classified packets into queues, you can adjust the parameters of queues. Reduce the queue size of queue 1 to 10 packets from the default 20 packets with the queue-list queue-list-number queue queuenumber limit limit command. R1 config queue-list 7 queue 1 limit 10 Most important to your CQ configuration is what byte count to send from each individual queue during each round-robin pass.
Beginning in IOS Release If CQ depletes the queue before the byte count is reached, CQ stores the deficit as a negative balance to use at the beginning of the next round-robin pass. Since your default queue, Queue 4, will probably have more traffic than other queues, raise its byte count to , which is double the default of R1 config queue-list 7 queue 4 byte-count What effect will this command produce?
Roughly twice the amount of traffic will be sent from queue 4 as from queues 1, 2, and 3. The last step of configuring CQ is to apply it to an interface. Notice that some of the TCP port numbers have been replaced with protocol names. When configuring CQ, you can enter the names of certain well-known protocols instead of their protocol numbers; however, the IOS contains a very small list of named protocols.
The output of show interfaces changes, as well, to reflect the new queuing strategy for an interface. No router-to-router telnet traffic with IP Precedence of 6 has been generated. Which queues are actively enqueuing and sending traffic? Queues 2, 3, and 4. In addition to the queues that you organized for classification above, queue 0 is used to send link control traffic across the link outside of the 16 normal queues 8 - 16 CCNP: Optimizing Converged Networks v5.
Queue 1 can hold a maximum of 10 packets. Issue the show queue interface queue-number command to view the contents of individual queues within the CQ output queues. Depending on the timing of command execution, you may also see FTP traffic in the output. Document ID: Shut down the Fast Ethernet interface on R1 to reduce the amount of traffic flowing into the serial interface.
After configuring the virtual terminal lines, begin a Telnet session from R2 to R1. Issue the undebug all command when you are done. Note: When telneting from a Cisco router to another Cisco router, Cisco telnet packets are marked with precedence 6. However, PQ implements a strict priority queuing policy. Rather than many queues that are serviced in a round-robin fashion, there are 4 queues with different priorities—high, medium, normal, and low.
A queue will not be serviced unless the queues with higher priority than it are empty. Priority queuing can easily create bandwidth starvation for lower-priority queues. If a packet is in the highest-priority queue, then PQ will always send that packet before others.
If a packet is in the medium-priority queue and no packets are in the high-priority queue, then the medium priority packet will take strict precedence over all packets in any lower-priority queues regardless of how many there are or how long they have been queued.
Priority queuing is configured using these steps: 1. Establish the packet limit for each queue. This step is optional. Apply the priority queuing list that you created globally to a particular interface, where it will replace the current outbound queuing strategy. In a production environment, you would want time-sensitive packets, such as VoIP packets, to have a high priority as well as routing control packets like EIGRP. Configure R2 to use priority queuing as the queuing method on the serial link facing R3.
Using the same extended access list you used in Step 3, select traffic with IP Precedence of 6 for the high-priority queue. Issue the priority-list priority-listnumber protocol protocol queue-name list access-list-number command to configure a queue in a priority list to hold packets matched by the access list.
As in custom queuing, you can create up to 16 priority lists on a router. For this lab, configure priority list 5. R2 config access-list permit ip any any precedence internet R2 config priority-list 5 protocol ip high list The rest of the queues you will configure in this queue list will match on TCP port number. You could also replace the tcp keyword with udp to match on UDP port numbers, although this will not be used in this lab because all of the traffic generated by TrafGen uses TCP as the transport protocol.
R2 config priority-list 5 protocol ip medium tcp 22 R2 config priority-list 5 protocol ip medium tcp 23 11 - 16 CCNP: Optimizing Converged Networks v5. Issue the priority-list priority-list-number default queuename command in global configuration mode. R2 config priority-list 5 default low The queue sizes for a priority list can also be configured. The default queue sizes are 20, 40, 60, and 80 for high, medium, normal, and low priorities respectively.
For this lab, increase the low queue size to Issue the priority-list priority-list-number queue-limit high-limit medium-limit normal-limit low-limit command to change the priority list queue sizes. You must enter in all four values together and in sequence. R2 config priority-list 5 queue-limit 20 40 60 Now that the priority list is configured, apply it to an interface by issuing the priority-group priority-list-number command in interface configuration mode.
Apply priority list 5 on R2 to its serial interface facing R3. The queue numbers correspond to the four named queues, starting at 0, with 0 being the highest priority. Has there been any change in the packets in the low-priority queue? No, the packets in the queue remain unchanged.
What does this indicate? Bandwidth starvation is occurring for packets in lower-priority queues. Debug priority queuing with the debug priority-queue command. Configure R3 for telnet access. Then, telnet from R2 to R3 to observe the enqueuing of packets into the high-priority queue.
This lab does not use the Pagent TGN application for traffic generation. Step 1: Configure Addressing Configure all of the physical interfaces shown in the diagram. Set the clock rate on the serial link to and use the no shutdown command to enable all of the interface addresses in the topology diagram.
However, TCP header compression comes at a cost in terms of processor time. RTP header compression is configured similarly, although it is not shown in this lab. Issue the ip tcp header-compression command in interface configuration mode to enable TCP header compression. It would be very useful if there were a lot of small TCP packets where the header took up a major portion of each packet.
R1 telnet Bytes out represents the total number of bytes that are sent using compression. You will use some of the packet analysis tools available in the Pagent toolset to compare different queuing strategies and their impact on end-to-end quality of service QoS. This is an investigative lab, so be sure to tweak the queuing strategies to ameliorate the results of your configurations.
Compare results with classmates and contrast the configurations that provide those results. Typically, commands and command output will only be shown if they have not been implemented in preceding labs, so it is highly recommended that you complete the previous labs to ensure knowledge of the queuing strategies and their configurations.
Prior to beginning this lab, configure R4 and the switch according to the Basic Pagent Configuration. You may easily accomplish this on R4 by loading the basic-ios. Do not load the TGN traffic generator configuration. Set the informational bandwidth parameter appropriately on the serial interfaces. Use the show interfaces command to discover the value of the bit MAC address.
Then, copy and paste that configuration into the TrafGen router. Time will pass, and then the router will inform you when all packets have been sent. There is no need to stop the streams since they will stop on their own. Example output is shown below, although this type of output will not be shown again later in the lab. Record all statistics by copying and pasting them into a text editor such as Notepad. Record a baseline reading for your current topology.
The first type is the most basic, FIFO queuing. Recall that disabling all other queuing strategies on an interface will enable FIFO queuing. Notice that the scenario the authors have designed overpowers all of the queuing mechanisms implemented because there is simply much more traffic 4 - 7 CCNP: Optimizing Converged Networks v5.
If you had this ratio of legitimate traffic to bandwidth in a production network, then queuing strategies would not solve the problem. It would be necessary to obtain additional bandwidth. Run the NQR streams again using nqr start send and compare the results of the show commands. The streams from NQR are generated in something similar to a round-robin fashion with the same number of packets for each stream.
In real networks, many traffic patterns are bursty, unlike this simulation. To understand what is meant by bursty traffic patterns, think of loading a web page. You type in a URL and there is a burst of traffic as the text and the graphics load. Then while you read the web page, there is no additional traffic being sent across the network.
Then you click on a link, and another burst of traffic traverses the network. What effect does the function of the NQR generator have on your results? Provide a circumstance in which you would expect a different result from FIFO? Place each traffic stream in its own queue but do not customize any parameters of it. Delay, jitter, and dropped packets were all worse higher than with the other queuing strategies.
Try making one of the queues have a size of How does this affect all of the traffic flows? R1 config queue-list 1 queue 1 byte-count The affected flow does not lose any packets and has lower jitter and delays than the other flows. The other ones have more lost packets, as well as having higher delays and jitter as packets wait for the large queue to reach its byte count. Assign one of the application protocols in use to the high priority queue, one to the medium queue, one to the normal queue, and make the low priority queue the default queue.
Run the NQR streams and compare results as you did before. The higher priority streams get no packet loss and very low delay and jitter. There is nearly full loss on the lower priority streams, and high delay and jitter when there is enough data for statistics. This would effectively make the interface use FIFO queuing.
You will configure both class-based marking and class-based queuing algorithms. Switch copy flash:basic. Set the clock rate on the serial link between R1 and R2 to , the clock rate of the serial link between R2 and R3 to be , and use the no shutdown command on all interfaces. One standard feature of NBAR, known as protocol discovery, allows you to dynamically learn which application protocols are in use on your network. The only IP traffic leaving the interface will be EIGRP Hello packets, so the majority of packets you should expect to see will be in the inbound direction.
The protocols that protocol discovery shows heavy inbound traffic for are the protocols that traffic generation was configured for. To enable protocol discovery, use the interface-level command ip nbar protocoldiscovery. This command displays statistics globally for every interface in which NBAR protocol discovery is enabled. The protocols will be ranked based on traffic usage per interface. Notice that ingress and egress traffic is separated as it is in the output of the show interfaces command.
Issue the show ip nbar port-map command to view the protocol-to-port mappings. This command can also come in handy if you need to find out a well-known port number for an application and do not have access to outside resources. Existing protocol mappings can be modified and custom protocols can be defined, but those NBAR features are outside of the scope of this lab. R1 show ip nbar port-map port-map bgp udp port-map bgp tcp port-map bittorrent tcp port-map citrix udp port-map citrix tcp port-map cuseeme udp port-map cuseeme tcp port-map dhcp udp 67 68 port-map directconnect tcp port-map dns udp 53 port-map dns tcp 53 port-map edonkey tcp port-map exchange tcp port-map fasttrack tcp port-map finger tcp 79 port-map ftp tcp 21 port-map gnutella udp port-map gnutella tcp port-map gopher udp 70 port-map gopher tcp 70 port-map h udp port-map h tcp — According to best QoS practices, where should packets be marked?
What is a trust boundary in terms of classification and marking? A trust boundary is a delineation of where markings will be honored and where they will not. Define traffic classes and the method of classification. Classes of traffic are defined in class maps using match statements. Create a QoS policy to provision network resources for any traffic classes created in Step 1. A QoS policy maps QoS actions, such as marking, queuing, shaping, policing, or compression, to selected classes.
Finally, the policy is applied to an interface directionally, in either the inbound or outbound direction. Certain policy-map commands can only be applied in a specific direction. For instance, queuing strategies can only be applied in the outbound policies.
The router sends an error message to the console if a queuing policy is applied to an interface in the inbound direction, because this is an impossible configuration option. Internet standards later converted this byte to the differentiated services DiffServ byte which contained the 6-bit differentiated services code point DSCP field. Create traffic classes using NBAR for protocol recognition. Class-maps are defined with the global configuration command class-map [match-type] name. The optional match-type argument can be set to either match-any or the default, match-all.
This argument defines whether all of the successive match statements must be met in order for traffic to be classified into this class, or if only one is necessary. Once in the class-map configuration mode, matching criteria can be defined with the match criteria command. To view all the possibilities of what can be matched on, use the? Choose to use NBAR for classification using the match protocol name command. These protocols are used for network control. These protocols are used for remote administration.
These protocols are used for web and email access. When creating these traffic classes, should you use the match-any or the match-all keyword? You should employ the match-any keyword so that more than one protocol can be selected for each traffic class. The classes created must match with the match-any mode so that any of the protocols listed can be matched. Obviously, it would be impossible for a packet to be two protocols at once.
R1 config class-map match-any critical R1 config-cmap match? R1 show class-map Class Map match-any critical id 1 Match protocol eigrp Match protocol ntp Class Map match-any class-default id 0 Match any Class Map match-any interactive id 2 Match protocol telnet Match protocol ssh Match protocol xwindows Class Map match-any web id 3 Match protocol http Match protocol pop3 Match protocol smtp The next task will be to define the QoS policy in a policy map.
Create a policy map in global configuration mode using the policy-map name command. Segment the policy map by traffic class by issuing the class name command. The names of the classes will be the same as the class maps you created above. R1 config policy-map markingpolicy At the class configuration prompt, you can use various commands that will affect traffic of that class use? To modify packets, use the command set property value. All other traffic: Set the IP Precedence of all other traffic to Routine, represented by the value 0.
This value is the default value for IP Precedence. There are different names for each value these can be found out with the? R1 config-pmap class critical R1 config-pmap-c set precedence? Precedence value cos Set packet precedence from L2 COS critical Set packets with critical precedence 5 flash Set packets with flash precedence 3 flash-override Set packets with flash override precedence 4 immediate Set packets with immediate precedence 2 internet Set packets with internetwork control precedence 6 network Set packets with network control precedence 7 priority Set packets with priority precedence 1 qos-group Set packet precedence from QoS Group.
R1 show policy-map Policy Map markingpolicy Class critical set precedence 7 Class interactive set precedence 5 Class web set precedence 3 Class class-default set precedence 1 Finally, apply the configuration outbound towards R2 with the interface-level command service-policy direction name.
This will give you detailed information and statistics on policy maps applied to an interface. Into the class-default class. Shaping limits traffic for a traffic class to a specific rate and buffers excess traffic. Policing, a related concept drops the excess traffic. Thus, the purpose of shaping is to buffer traffic so that more traffic is sent than if you policed at the same rate because not only will the traffic conforming to the policy be sent, but also buffered excess traffic when permitted.
Policing and shaping can each be configured within a policy map as a QoS action for a specific traffic class, or you can nest policy maps to create an aggregate shaper or policer. Multiple QoS actions can be taken on a specific class of traffic so you could use shaping in conjunction with marking or compression, or various other actions. Keep this in mind for the remaining labs The first task in creating the QoS policy is to enumerate classes.
Create classes like this for IP Precedences 0, 3, 5, and 7—the in Module 4. In this circumstance, however, you will view the class-based shapers in conjunction with low-latency queuing LLQ. CBWFQ is similar to custom queuing CQ in that it provisions an average amount or percent of bandwidth to a traffic class. However, the classification mechanism in class-based tools is much more powerful because it can also use NBAR to discover application protocols and even application protocol parameters, such as the URL in an HTTP request.
LLQ is a simple improvement on CBWFQ, adding the ability to designate some classes as priority traffic and ensure that they are sent before others. This policy map will be used to shape traffic based on markings by R1. To match on IP Precedence in a class definition, use the match precedence precedence command, where the precedence argument is the value or representative name.
Create the class map as follows. R2 config class-map prec0 R2 config-cmap match precedence 0 R2 config-cmap class-map prec3 R2 config-cmap match precedence 3 R2 config-cmap class-map prec5 R2 config-cmap match precedence 5 R2 config-cmap class-map match-any prec7 R2 config-cmap match precedence 7 R2 config-cmap match protocol eigrp Next, create the QoS policy to shape and queue the traffic. The syntax for entering the policy map and per-class configuration will be the same as above.
However, rather than changing packet properties, we will set up low-latency queuing LLQ for the interface. Configuring CBWFQ involves assigning each traffic class dedicated bandwidth, either through exact bandwidth amounts or relative percentage amounts. LLQ is the configured the same way, except that one or more traffic classes are designated as priority traffic and assigned to an expedite queue.
All traffic that enters the expedite queue up to the bandwidth limit will be sent as soon as possible, preempting traffic from non-priority classes. While you configure either CBWFQ or LLQ, you can allocate a certain bandwidth for a traffic class, using the bandwidth rate command, where rate is a bandwidth amount in kilobits per second. Alternatively, use the bandwidth percentage percent command to allocate a percentage of bandwidth, where percent of the bandwidth is set by the informational bandwidth parameter that you configured in Step 1.
For LLQ solely, issue the priority rate command or the priority percentage percent command in policy map configuration mode. These commands have the same arguments, which have the same effect as the bandwidth commands, except that they designate that queue as the priority queue. Also, select weighted fairqueuing as the queuing method in the default traffic class with the fair-queue command. Notice that the priority queue is a variant on the regular queues.
Routing protocol traffic belongs in a priority queue so that adjacencies do not get lost. Any delay-sensitive traffic, such as Voice over IP VoIP or interactive video traffic, also belongs in a priority queue. However, it is a useful tool for the verification of a marking policy. Issue the ip accounting precedence direction command in interface configuration mode to enable IP accounting on an interface.
View the accounting records for IP precedence by issuing the show interfaces precedence command. You do not need to actually implement it. HINT: Think access lists. You can create an extended access list with a permit statement for each IP Precedence, and then use show access-lists to look at the counters for each line.
This is shown in the following output. You will configure class-based marking, shaping, and policing mechanisms. You should complete Lab 4. Preparation This lab relies on the Advanced Pagent Configuration, which you should have created in Lab 3. Prior to beginning this lab, configure R4 and the switch according to the Advanced Pagent Configuration.
TrafGen copy flash:advanced-ios. ALS1 copy flash:advanced. At the end of Step 1, you will begin generating TGN traffic. TrafGen tgn load-config advanced-tgn. Set the clock rate on both serial links to bits per second and use the no shutdown command on all necessary interfaces. Include all connected subnets within the R1 config router ospf 1 R1 config-router network These RFCs define a marking scheme as well as a set of actions or preferences to be followed at each hop as that data packet traverses the routed path.
However, markings with standardized meanings can drastically improve the understanding of QoS in a network. The x value represents the traffic class, while the y value represents the drop probability within that traffic class. There are four defined traffic classes numbered 1 through 4 and three drop priorities numbered 1 through 3. The larger the drop priority, the more likely the packet is to be dropped. All QoS actions will be performed within the MQC, so you will need to create traffic classes on each router.
To set a DSCP value, use the policy-map class configuration sub-prompt command set dscp value. Notice the available values shown in the output below. R1 config-pmap-c set dscp? These protocols are used for web and e-mail access. Also, verify that the marking strategy is actively marking traffic with the show policy-map interface interface command. IP Precedence is simpler and more straightforward with only 3 bits.
DSCP is more powerful because of the granularity it allows. Which one is better depends on the traffic profile diversity of traffic and which one the administrator feels is more appropriate for their network. Step 4: Configuring Class-Based Shaping Traffic shaping is a QoS tool that allows you to define an average or peak rate at which traffic will be sent at an egress interface.
Excess traffic is queued for sending later. Observe the following rules when shaping or policing traffic: 1. At OSI Layer 1, data can only be sent at the clock rate access rate of the medium. At OSI Layer 2, frames can be sent to approximate variable rates up to the Layer 1 clock rate by interchanging sending frames and restricting the sending of frames.
In other words, traffic must be sent in bursts of data at exactly the access rate within each time interval to shape or police traffic at a specific rate. Shaping and policing allow you to either allow the Cisco IOS to determine the amount of traffic to send within each time interval or to specify the number of bytes in the shape or police commands.
In this step, shape all traffic traveling from R4 to R3 across the serial link to a peak rate. Create a policy map and classify traffic only into the default class; then shape peak egress rate of the default class on R4. This method of using one traffic class within the policy map to shape traffic can effectively simulate the function of GTS when you apply the policy map to an interface.
Configure the peak traffic rate for a class, using the shape peak rate command. You can also configure the burst values more granularly, but this is beyond the scope of this lab. What happens to the DSCP markings on IP packets traversing the serial link from R4 to R3 if no other traffic classes are referenced within the policy map?
They retain their markings as long as the traffic classes that are selected by the policy map do not set the marking values to something else. Step 5: Configure Nested Service Policies When you begin to create more complex QoS policies, you may find the need to apply a named policy-map inside of a class in another policy-map.
You noted before that only the default class was used in the shaping policy in Step 4. Apply the differentiated actions in a single policy map. Then, set the shaping action in the default class in another policy map and apply the first policy map as an MQC action within the second policy map. Use the policy map you configured in Step 4 as the outer policy map which will be applied directly to the interface. Create a new policy map to be used inside the outer policy map.
Shape the individual classes using the inner policy map and shape the aggregate over all of the traffic classes in the outer policy map. Create another policy with appropriate classes as shown below that shapes EF traffic to 40kbps, AF41 traffic should get 80kpbs, and AF32 traffic should get shaped to kbps.
Apply this new policy inside the class configuration of the policy created in Step 4 using the service-policy name command. Policers drop excess packets and do not carry traffic from one interval to the next. Create a new policy map to police traffic passing from R3 to R2.
Police the default class to the specified rate by issuing the police rate rate type command. You may also set up more granular parameters for the policer to use by issuing the? Notice that some of the details of policing, such as the burst size, have been set up automatically since we did not specify them.
Issue the compression header ip type command, where type is either the tcp or rtp keyword. For more information on header compression, consult the Lab 4. R4 config policy-map innerpolicy R4 config-pmap class af32 R4 config-pmap-c compression header ip tcp If this was actual TCP traffic and not spoofed traffic, you would see packets being compressed. Notice that in the output of the show policy-map command no headers have been compressed. The traffic that is being generated is not legitimate TCP traffic so it will not be compressed.
Buffers Limit Packets compress: header ip tcp How could you create compressible TCP packets given the current topology? Telnet from R4 to R3 after preparing R3 for telnet access. Implement your solution and verify that packets are being compressed. R3 config line vty 0 4 R3 config-line password cisco R3 config-line login R4 telnet Only commands related to this lab are shown.
R4 show run! These tools are generally used on WAN connections to shape or police the entire traffic flow exiting an interface. Preparation This lab relies on the Advanced Pagent Configuration which you should have created in Lab 3. You may easily accomplish this on R4 by loading the advanced-ios. R4 tgn load-config advanced-tgn. You will configure these two serial links in Step 2. Set the clock rate on the serial link between R2 and R3 to 64 kbps and use the no shutdown command on all interfaces.
Set the informational bandwidth parameter appropriately on the R2-R3 serial interfaces. They will be set up to be 64 kbps links individually, but their multilink logical connection will be kbps. Set the clock rate on the DCE interfaces to 64 kbps and assign the informational bandwidth parameter appropriately. Next, set up the interfaces to use PPP as the Layer 2 encapsulation with the encapsulation ppp command. Enable PPP multilink on each interface with the ppp multilink command and configure each interface to participate in PPP multilink group 1 with the ppp multilink group number command.
Bring up the interfaces with the no shutdown command. Do not configure any IP addresses on the physical interfaces since they will solely operate at Layer 2. Since you are using group number 1, configure the multilink interface with number 1. Assign the IP address shown in the diagram to the multilink interface. R3 config interface multilink 1 R3 config-if ip address If not, troubleshoot. R3 ping The bandwidth shown in this output is the sum of the individual link bandwidths.
The output below varies slightly between the routers because they are running different IOS versions. The bandwidth shown in this output is the aggregate of the active serial interfaces that you have assigned to this multilink group. R3 show interfaces multilink 1 Multilink1 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is multilink group interface Internet address is Normally, the default queuing strategy on a serial interface with the same speed would be weighted fair queuing WFQ.
What is another type of interface that would benefit from being bundled in PPP? ISDN links could have their individual channels bundled together. From a conceptual perspective, what other types of logical bundling can occur in a network? Ethernet switchports can be bundled together to create a logical connection using EtherChannels. Frame Relay virtual circuits can be bundled in VC groups. For instance, in voice applications, where delay and jitter are the top quality of service considerations, it is important that voice packets encounter minimal delay especially on low-speed serial interfaces where there is a large serialization delay.
Once packets have been fragmented, the LFI mechanism must also allow fragments of packets to be transmitted non-consecutively. For instance, voice packets must be allowed to be sent between fragments of large packets. Shut down the multilink interface to prevent link flapping while you configure LFI.
Next, change the queuing strategy on the multilink interface from FIFO to weighted fair queuing WFQ with the fair-queue command in interface configuration mode. Set the interleaving fragment delay with the ppp multilink fragment delay milliseconds command. Reduce the maximum delay to 15 ms from the default 30 ms.
This delay setting controls the maximum size to which packets must be fragmented, attempting to avoid negative results in delaysensitive applications. Finally, bring the interface back up. R3 config interface multilink 1 R3 config-if shutdown R3 config-if fair-queue R3 config-if ppp multilink fragment delay 15 R3 config-if ppp multilink interleave R3 config-if no shutdown R4 config interface multilink 1 R4 config-if shutdown R4 config-if fair-queue R4 config-if ppp multilink fragment delay 15 R4 config-if ppp multilink interleave R4 config-if no shutdown Issue the show ppp multilink command to view the LFI configuration.
The adjacency forms over the multilink interface, not the individual serial links. Shaping can be configured on a per-interface basis by the use of Generic Traffic Shaping GTS , which you will configure in this lab. Generic traffic shaping is considered a legacy QoS feature.
In most modern networks, you would use the MQC version of traffic shaping instead. However, it is useful to configure GTS both pedagogically as well as to demonstrate traffic shaping outside of the MQC. All of the configuration for GTS can be accomplished with the use of the traffic-shape command in interface configuration mode. Imagine that R3 is owned by an ISP. You have added another 64 kbps serial link from R3 to R4 to the multilink group.
However, according to your traffic contract, the ISP is only responsible to forward traffic from you at a committed information rate CIR of kbps over this PPP multilink interface. Any excess traffic may be dropped by the ISP without warning.
Issue the traffic-shape rate rate command in interface configuration mode. Set the rate argument to kbps. The traffic will be buffered in software by the traffic-shaping. R4 config interface multilink 1 R4 config-if traffic-shape rate Verify traffic shaping with the show traffic-shape and show traffic-shape statistics commands.
The former command shows statically configured options while the latter command displays dynamically captured statistics. The difference is, while shaping tries to smooth out a traffic profile, policing merely forces the traffic to conform to a certain rate, without buffering it. The picture below illustrates the difference taken from cisco. Describe a situation in which you would use both traffic shaping and policing but not on the same interface.
You may want to shape traffic to a certain rate to minimize packet loss if you know that it will be policed to that rate later, such as by a service provider. You configure CAR on an interface by setting a policing rate with the rate-limit command. Issue the rate-limit direction bps normal-burst maxmium-burst conform-action action exceed-action action command. When packets conform to the policy, send them by using the continue keyword. When packets do not, drop them. This lab will use the NQR tool from the Pagent toolset to observe delay and jitter statistics as you implement your solutions.
You will investigate how different shaping and policing affect packet delay. If you have extra time to complete this lab, do not hesitate to extend this scenario to more configurations than simply those given here.
Typically, commands and command output will only be shown if they have not been implemented in preceding Module 4 labs, so it is highly recommended that you complete Labs 4. R4 copy flash:advanced-ios. Step 1: Configure Physical Interfaces and Routing 1. Configure all IP addresses shown in the diagram and use a clockrate of kbps on all serial links. On the serial interfaces, set the informational bandwidth appropriately. Configure OSPF to route for all networks shown in the diagram.
Copy and paste the configuration shown below into NQR on R4. This configuration will simulate two traffic streams: a constant high-bandwidth stream and a bursty, lower-bandwidth stream concurrent with it. Configure this either on a per-interface basis or using a policy-map to police the default class. Then, run the NQR test again and record and compare statistics with the baseline statistics you captured in Step 2. How did these packet drop statistics compare to the earlier ones?
More packets were dropped, since the rate was lowered from the original rate the clockrate set for that link , so some packets had to be dropped. Identify where packet drops occurred in the topology using the show interfaces command. Shape the traffic down to the same rate that you are using to police traffic on R3. Use either the class-based method by shaping the default class or using the Generic Traffic Shaping on the multilink interface..
This is the way using the MQC, to use the interface-level way you would use the interface-level command traffic-shape: R4 config policy-map mypolicy R4 config-pmap class class-default R4 config-pmap-c shape peak R4 config-pmap-c interface multilink 1 R4 config-if service-policy output mypolicy 5 - 8 CCNP: Optimizing Converged Networks v5. How would shaping engender fewer packet drops even if the policing rate was not changed?
When using shaping, traffic that goes over the shaping rate will be buffered, up to a point. Shaping tries to get the traffic to fit a certain profile. After the buffer is filled up, excess traffic will be dropped. To what real-life scenario is this situation similar?
A flow is defined by the source and destination addresses and port numbers, the transport protocol, and the IP Precedence value. However, WFQ manages the allocation of network bandwidth by classifying traffic into prioritized flows, and dividing the network bandwidth fairly between those flows. However, at the tunnel endpoints you can make more intelligent decisions about the prioritization of packets because you have access to the inner packets before you encapsulate them with another IP header.
This scenario will guide you through implementing the QoS pre-classify feature to ensure that flow-based tools can make more intelligent decisions in provisioning bandwidth for tunneled flows. You can accomplish this easily on R4 by loading the basic-ios. TrafGen tgn load-config basic-tgn. R1 config ip route 0. No, R2 is completely shielded from the Create the tunnel interfaces on both R1 and R3 and use the addresses in the Use IP addresses in the R2 does not need to have routing information for the network addresses you use in your private network Create a GRE tunnel interface, by issuing the interface tunnel number command to enter interface configuration mode for the tunnel interface.
The tunnel interface number is only locally significant; however, for simplicity, use tunnel interface number 0 on both R1 and R3. Next, configure addressing for the tunnel interface itself with the ip address address mask command, just like you would do on any other interface. Finally, assign a source and destination address for the tunnel with the tunnel source address and tunnel destination address commands, respectively. The tunnel source can alternatively be specified by interface.
Tunneled traffic will be first sent to the other end of the GRE tunnel before being forwarded to its destination. Tunneling accomplishes this function by encapsulating packets with an outer IP header with the source and destination addresses supplied with the two previous commands. You do not need to configure a tunnel mode because the default tunnel mode is GRE. If you can do this, you have successfully set up the tunnel.
Remember that all of the traffic generated by Pagent is attempting to traverse the link as well and may cause delays in sending the EIGRP hellos. The protocol number at the end is 47, which is GRE—the default tunnel encapsulation. All generated traffic is being encapsulated in GRE packets. To R1, this is one flow because it is a single protocol number there are no port numbers in GRE with the same source and destination address.
One for each IP Precedence value numbered 0 through 7. This ensures that a disproportionate amount of tunneled traffic is not dropped or significantly delayed at the physical interface. Enable the QoS pre-classify feature by issuing the qos pre-classify command in interface configuration mode for the tunnel interfaces. R1 config interface tunnel 0 R1 config-if qos pre-classify R3 config interface tunnel 0 R3 config-if qos pre-classify Now, try looking at the queue contents of the serial interface.
Individual flows can be seen rather than a single encapsulated flow. You may simply accomplish this on R4 by loading the basic-ios. Set the clock rate on the serial link between R1 and R2 to Kbps and the clock rate of the serial link between R2 and R3 to Kbps; use the no shutdown command on all interfaces. You must initiate AutoQoS in a discovery phase in which the application observes traffic on an interface. You may decide to observe traffic over a significant period of time to ensure that all types of traffic have been accounted for.
The policies that AutoQoS creates can both mark traffic and implement various traffic shaping mechanisms. Let auto discovery run for a few minutes, and then peruse the traffic profile and suggested policy using the show auto discovery qos command. Your output may vary, as the results from this command are dynamically generated based on the traffic patterns observed. Class Interactive Video: No data found. Class Signaling: No data found. Class Streaming Video: No data found.
Class Management: No data found. Besides the details of the statistics gathered, you can see that it separates traffic into classes based on function and latency requirements. At the end of the output, a suggested traffic policy is created. If the traffic generated by the traffic generator was different or more extensive, you might see other classes being utilized, with their own entries in the policy.
How many traffic classes has AutoQoS derived from the observed patterns? AutoQoS has classified all traffic into two distinct queues. Is this how you would also classify traffic generated by the Pagent router if you were to implement the suggested QoS policy on the command line? If Pagent was being used, you would expect a minimum of three distinct queues. Minimally, a queue would be added for voice traffic. Queue class 1—most preferred queue, low drop priority. Queue class 2—low drop priority.
Are these markings locally significant to the router or globally significant over the entire routed path? If markings are applied at ingress and re-marked at egress, then they may be only locally significant. However, if packets are marked at egress then they will be seen by other routers. These markings will also be significant if considered by other routers in their routed path.
Normally in the Differentiated Service model, you prefer to mark once and classify based on marking at a later node. How much bandwidth do you expect to be allocated to the transactional and buik traffic classes respectively? You can verify this by looking at the running configuration for the serial interface.
Current configuration : bytes! R1 show auto qos! Thus, when you issue the auto qos command, AutoQoS immediately generates the MQC configuration and applies it to the interface. Having the auto discovery step separate from the actual implementation of AutoQoS allows the discovery phase as much time as needed to observe traffic patterns.
Once traffic patterns are evaluated for an appropriate period of time, the person implementing AutoQoS can decide whether this is the policy that should be activated for the interface, or whether this policy needs to be tweaked. Describe the efficiency of enabling AutoQoS on all routers in your network, but not configuring AutoQoS to trust markings from other routers.
This would be highly inefficient. Then, use the show auto discovery qos command to view the traffic patterns that AutoQoS has observed. Class Routing: No data found. However, this time, the statistics are based on DSCP values, not individual applications. Enable AutoQoS on the interface. R2 show auto qos! If you have a wireless client nearby, connect to the WLANs and access devices from the inside of your pod to verify your configuration of the controller and access points.
Note: It is required that you upgrade the WLC firmware image to 4. Erase the startup-config file and delete the vlan. On the WLAN controller, use the clear controller command followed by the reset system command to reset them. Set up the switch-to-switch links shown in the diagram as This is useful when dealing with lightweight access points, which usually do not have an initial configuration. The WLAN controller that the lightweight wireless access point associates with defines the configuration.
If you use up all the free memory, the router crashes. The number of traffic streams you can safely create depends on the amount of router free memory use show memory at exec and the size and complexity of the packet definitions. Leave a couple of megabytes of memory free for router processes and stacks.
Configurable fields can be used to augment the field definitions supplied by the templates. They define where a field starts in a packet, how long it is, the format of the data, and what the data in the field is, whether constant, incrementing, or random.
When you use the [field select field-name] option, the specified field becomes the current field. If you do not specify a field number or field name, the command is applied to the current field the field last accessed or modified. The TGN program continues to run; only the command prompt changes. The same occurs with the pkts and filter commands.
In flow mode or when using the flow command, the expand command makes copies of the currently selected flow member. If the original traffic stream has incrementing, random, or iterating fields, the new traffic streams have constant values in the fields, but are incremented, iterated, or random for each additional traffic stream.
If packet-mix is specified, the traffic stream is expanded into the specified number of streams with the specified lengths in packetJengthJist. If packet-mix is not specified, the traffic stream is expanded into 12 traffic streams of the following lengths in this order: 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 You can use this command with a flow member to send out the IMIX traffic in order.
Cisco Company Confidential Command Reference field - Adding and Updating Configurable Fields When you use the [field select field-name] option, the specified field becomes the current field. You must give the field a name. The limit is 20 alpha-numeric characters; spaces are allowed. The new field becomes the current field. You must give the new field a name.
The next lower field becomes the current field. For hex and decimal fields, there is no difference in data entry. Decimal or hex with leading Ox values can be input into either type. This only affects how the field data is displayed. For example, these commands configure the first byte of the field as 8 and the second byte as 9: field type 2 bed field data 89 Timestamp field data cannot be entered.
This occurs before any transport checksums are calculated, so that the timestamp can be added into a valid TCP or UDP packet. Turn off transport checksumming if the checksum is not important to the test. Valid arguments for sign-post are: packet-start mac-address-start dsap-address-start network-start transport-start data-array-start packet-end TGN Traffic GeNerator User Manual Cisco Company Confidential field - Adding and Updating Configurable Fields Note For packet-end, the offset has be entered as a positive integer but is used as negative offset from the end of packet.
The input data has to match what the field is configured for, whether an IP address or number decimal or hex. The data can be entered as a constant value the default , or incremented or random between a specified range. This cannot be used for a timestamp field.
When a field is configured as iterate-thru, the set of values must be specified in as comma separated values CSV with no space in between. The format depends on the type of the field. For example, Note If there are spaces between the comma separated values, they are ignored, and the entire set of values must be enclosed in quotes.
All incrementing and random fields are reset when traffic generation is started, unless the no-reset option is specified. The above commands result in a configurable field that displays as follows: field 1 field name "internal-nets" field type 2 decimal bytes field start-at data-array-start offset 0 field data 25 In the following example, assume that there are already five configurable fields, and we want to insert a field into the sequence at number 3.
The new field becomes field number 3. The above commands result in a configurable field that displays as follows: field 3 field name "server address" field type ip field start-at data-array-start offset 10 field data random It then adds any data array information.
If the packet is to be longer than the headers and data array, it uses a fill pattern to create the remaining bytes of the packet. The random option fills the bytes with randomly generated data. If with-update is specified, the random data is updated for every packet sent out.
Otherwise, the random data is generated only once and used for all the packets in the traffic stream. It is defined by a starting byte value and an increment value that all subsequent bytes are incremented by. By default, start-byte is 0x0, and increment-by is 0x You can also use these commands without the flow keyword from flow mode see Using Flow Mode page 1. To exit flow mode and return to tgn mode, use the tgn command. While in flow mode, you can use the pkts, filter, and end commands, which exit the TGN command prompt.
They are similar to the add add -Adding a Traffic Stream page 1 and insert-at insert-at - Inserting a Traffic Stream page 1 commands. If no member is specified, it deletes the currently selected member. If the interval is zero, those two members are sent consecutively. If fragmentation is enabled, it is only active in process output mode. This command does not have any effect in fast, dedicated, and optimal send modes.
If fragmentation is enabled and mtu is specified as auto, the MTU of the outgoing interface is used. The IP options configured by the commands L3-option-length and L3-option-data are copied into the first fragment. When fragmentation is enabled, the large packet is first fully constructed, that is, all the incrementing, iterating, or random fields including user-configured fields created with the field command are updated.
IP fragmentation is performed as specified by RFC For the flags and fragment offset fields, the user-configured value is ignored in the fragments. The fields Header-length, Total-length, and Header-checksum in the IP headers of the fragments are updated as per the configurations in the original packet definition. If a field is configured as auto, the field in each fragment is calculated and updated.
If the field is configured as constant, incrementing, or random, the same value is copied into each of the fragments. By default, this is disabled. When drop-fragments is enabled, the default mode is random. When mode is set to random, TGN randomly picks the fragment to be dropped. When mode is set to constant last, TGN drops the last fragment. If there is only one fragment, it is dropped, and no fragment is sent. When mode is set to constant num, if the length is constant and num is set to greater than the number of resulting fragments, no fragments are dropped.
Use the show command to display the fragmentation-related configuration of a traffic stream. When fragmentation is enabled, you can configure packets of length bytes max-length of an IP packet. This can be done with the length, data-length, or data commands. The insert-at command takes the following arguments. For more details on implementing these commands, see add - Adding a Traffic Stream page The traffic stream to be cloned is identified by the interface it is on and by its name or number.
This command, which is an alternate to the rate command, is useful when specifying slow send rates. If the interface is configured for ordered traffic scheduling, the interval represents the time between the scheduled departure of the traffic stream and the next traffic stream on the interface list.
It is placed after the encapsulated packet data. The default is off. This must be set to off if the traffic stream does not define an ISL packet. This helps create a valid ISL packet, but overwrites the datalink header data set in the NQR traffic stream definition. If you are using datalink ios-dependent isl-subinterface, you must activate this mode if you are using output-mode fast or output-mode dedicated. This mode does not work with output-mode optimal. The value of this mode is that the datalink header defined by NQR is not changed by the transmission hardware, but there is a performance impact.
This mode does not work on a VIP. If you need to use this mode on a VIP interface, you must use the RP primary processor and not the VIP secondary processor to transmit the packets. The fill pattern is not added to the packet. The length can be less than the data array and the headers I hope you know what you're doing. If the length is greater than the headers and data array, the fill pattern is used to define the additional bytes in the packet. By default, the increment is by 1 byte to max-length and restarts at min-length.
To specify another amount, use the inc-by option. By default, the random length can be any value from min-length to max-length. The inc-by option causes the packet length to be min-length plus multiples of inc-by, instead of multiples of 1.
The values must be specified as decimal or hex. An exception to this behavior is only when fragmentation is enabled. It first deletes all existing traffic streams on all interfaces unless the append option is configured. It then reads in and executes the commands in the requested configuration file to create new traffic streams.
The traffic stream configuration file was created with the save-config command. Examples If you enter load-config? The following example shows using the command from the router exec with a complete URL. You can then use the show global command to see the complete URL. It calculates an interval based on the rate and size of the packet just transmitted by TGN.
The next scheduled packet on the same interface is transmitted after the interval has elapsed. Use the keyword off to turn the feature off. In mixed interface mode, traffic streams are organized in a single list instead. TGN only sends the traffic streams defined in the mode under which the traffic generation command is issued.
The name is limited to 39 characters. Most IOS file systems close an inactive file after a short idle time. After the file is opened, use the write commands to log the information, with less than ten seconds delay between write requests, and then close the log file with close-logfile.
A PRAM log file can be kept open for hours or days. Examples If you enter open-logfile? For example, you want to log to TFTP server If the complete URL is entered, the program does not prompt for more information. The default is independent scheduling off.
With ordered-traffic scheduling, traffic streams on the currently selected interface or, under broadcast mode, all interfaces, are sent in the order of the traffic stream number. Currently, ordered-traffic scheduling is only supported for process and fast-send output modes. The TGN program has four different modes of sending packets: process, fast, dedicated, and optimal.
The optimal mode is available only on selected processors. This is the default if all is not entered. Note For non-IOS programmers, 10S handles all incoming and outgoing packets through a data structure called paktype, along with memory allocated through the paktype, to hold the packet. The primary advantage of process mode is that traffic streams can be added, inserted, deleted, and updated while traffic is being generated. This cannot be done in fast and dedicated modes.
You can increase the output levels of this mode significantly using the repeat command. In this mode, when traffic generation is started, a paktype structure is allocated to every active traffic stream and the packet headers, data array, and fill pattern are copied in. The paktype is not released until traffic generation is stopped. When it is time for a traffic stream to send out a packet, fast mode updates incrementing, random, length, and checksum fields, if needed, and sends the packet out.
Fast mode is faster that process mode, since it does not need to repeatedly allocate and delete paktypes. In fast mode, the TGN program regularly releases to IOS, so that operating system, router processes, and other test programs can run. Traffic stream packets cannot be created, deleted, or updated while traffic is being output.
In this mode, operating system, routing processes, and other test programs do not get processing cycles. When this mode is started, it posts the following message: You have started traffic generation in dedicated output-mode. TGN will go into a send loop that locks out all other processes.
Enter control-6 or shift-control-6 to stop traffic generation. This mode is significantly faster than fast mode. Unlike the other output modes, this makes use of specific capabilities of the hardware to send packets at higher rates. In most cases, optimal mode will have limitations that the other modes do not.
The limitations can include the inability to change packet data or lengths, not support repeat, and limits on packets lengths and the number of traffic streams it can support. Cisco Company Confidential Command Reference prompt - Setting Command Prompt Format When this mode is selected, the program posts a message indicating what limitations that implementation has. The number of traffic streams is limited by the amount of MEMD about Setting the format of the command prompt for this program also sets it for all other Pagent programs, so you only have to set it once if several programs are used.
In dynamic mode, the IOS hostname in the command prompt is limited to seven characters. The static mode is for test automation scripts. To define a slow rate, use the interval command. To define rate in bits per second, use the bit-rate command. The default is 1, which means no looping. By default, a traffic stream is defined with no update on repeat. This is not a problem that affects router operation; it affects only programs like this that try to send the same packet repeatedly in a tight loop.
For Example: replace L3-ipv4-addr The saved configuration can be loaded later with the load-config command. Examples If you enter save-config? For example, you want to save the configuration to TFTP server The newer, high-end platforms support multiple processors, each running IOS. The word slot is not required.
The command searches all traffic streams on all interfaces. It selects the first traffic stream that is a complete match. You must enter the complete name assigned to the traffic stream. The primary purpose of this command is to make it easy for a test script to select an existing traffic stream. Cisco Company Confidential Command Reference send - Sending Packets name - Assigning a Name to a Traffic Stream page send - Sending Packets send number-of-packets Configures a traffic stream to send exactly the requested number of packets when the start send command is entered.
Each packet in a packet sequence is defined as a traffic stream and incorporated using a packet sequence reference. You can specify a traffic stream reference by name or number. You can specify the traffic stream reference either by name or number. If the interval is zero, all other traffic streams on the same interface are blocked during each iteration of the packet sequence transmission.
For every show command, there is an equivalent write command that displays the same information on the console but also writes it to an 1FS log fde see write - Writing Information to an IFS Log File page V. When the show and write commands are used in flow mode or with the flow command, they display information about the members of the currently selected flow see flow - Adding and Updating Packet Flows page You can use the following options singly or together with a show command to select specific traffic streams to display.
You can identify traffic streams either by name or number. If identifying by name, you must enter the full exact name. You can use this option with all commands that display a summary of traffic streams. For example, FL Flow members do not have a rate; they only have an interval to the next member.
See show traffic-stream - Displaying a Traffic Stream by Name or Number page to display a traffic stream by name. With TCL-friendly format, data is easy to extract from the output text because it follows a unique keyword and is not row- and column-position dependent, which can change with Pagent releases. One is only for the source and destination addresses, the other for the remaining header fields.
Each source and destination address is on its own line. These are the same commands that would be written to an 1FS file by the save-config command. You can use these commands in a script. The resulting configuration commands must be executed at the router exec prompt. It shows a cumulative number since the last time the counter was cleared. The counter can be cleared with the clear counts command.
If you have a back-to-back crossover connection between two Ethernet lOBaseT interfaces and the interface on the router running TGN is not shut, but the other ethernet interface is shut, the other interface will report the admin. See show interface config - Displaying Interface Configurations page It is easy to extract data in TCL-friendly format from the output text because it follows a unique keyword and is not row- and column-position dependent, which can change with Pagent releases.
This command also shows a summary of delayed-start definitions. By default, the currently selected traffic stream is displayed, or you can select a specific traffic stream by name or number. Use the hex option to display the packets in hex.
Fragment 1: Ethernet Packet: bytes Dest Addr: Fragment 3: Ethernet Packet: 40 bytes Dest Addr: By default, this command displays the currently selected traffic stream, unless n is used to select another traffic stream. This command is useful when running a script from the router exec prompt, and the program option prompt is not available. If the keyword summary is included, only the interface totals are displayed. The display can post one of the following messages to explain what the rates are based on: The rates are since traffic generation was started.
The rates are since the last rate change during traffic generation. Traffic generation is currently off. These rates are from the last time traffic generation was active. The following example shows output during traffic generation. Note that the rate or interval is measured by taking the time at which traffic generation is started and when it is stopped, and the number of packets sent during that period.
This means that the measurement can be badly off when the time between packets is long, and the transmit period is short for example the interval measurement here. Enter shift-control-6 to stop traffic generation or wait for completion. Send process complete. This command can also displays header field configurations for flow members.
This is similar to the command show ts , except this allows the traffic stream to be selected by name. Traffic streams are then defined for TGN program use. When traffic generation is started or activated, the command prompt will indicate ON and all active traffic streams on all interfaces will transmit packets. These commands do not affect arp-responder or hello-generator traffic streams.
As long as an arp-responder is defined and active, it will respond to ARP requests. As long as a hello-generator is defined and active, it will send out hello packets. Traffic does not stop until the stop command or cntrl-shift-6 for dedicated mode is entered.
This send mode can also be aborted with the stop command. By default, percent is 0, that is, there is a constant time interval between each packet sent by a traffic stream. If percent is not zero, it defines a range of interval values, plus and minus from the interval defined by the rate or interval or bit-rate command. A new and different interval is calculated within this range after each packet. In all cases, the average rate over a period of time is equal to the rate set by the rate or interval or bit-rate command, even though individual intervals would vary.
This does not affect the interval between packets sent in a repeat, which are still sent as fast as possible. Instead, it affects the time interval between the repeat sends see repeat - Resending Packets Repeatedly page The default is to display the messages on the console. It helps get around a problem of releasing paktypes at fast output rates. By default, this value is set to 0, that is, in fast and dedicated output modes, paktypes are released immediately.
In some situations, at fast output rates, paktypes might not get released and might result in a slow memory leak. If the memory leak is a problem, set a wait-to-release time of n seconds. This causes a wait period of n seconds after a stop command before the paktypes are forced to be released by setting their refcount. In most cases, a wait time of 1 second is enough. In some situations, 10 seconds might not be enough. The wait period is reflected in the command prompt options. The program prevents restarting traffic generation until the wait period is over.
Commands that start with the keyword show are used to display information on the console. For every show command, there is an equivalent write command that displays the same information on the console but also writes it to an opened IFS log file. These can all be defined as having a constant value, incrementing or being random over a range. A few fields are defined by entering a string of hex numbers. These fields cannot be incrementing or random, although it is possible to lay a configurable field on top of these fields to add variability.
Checksum and header length fields also have the additional ability of being defined automatically to accommodate changing packet lengths and data. Decimal and Hex Fields Most header fields are decimal or hexadecimal numbers, 1 to 4 bytes in length. There are three command formats to define these fields. All of these values can be entered as decimal or hex. Hex numbers must start with Ox. The generic prompt for these numbers always prompts for a number that is valid for a 4 byte field.
If the number entered is too large, an error message indicates the correct maximum value. By default, it increments by 1 byte to max-value and restarts at min-value. The inc-by option allows the field value to increase by the inc-by] byte amount instead of by 1.
By default, the random value can be from min-value to max-value. The inc-by option causes the field value to be min-value plus multiples of inc-by, instead of multiples of 1. The increment and random options only affect the last 4 bytes of these 6 byte fields. If you need to have the first 2 bytes changing, lay a configurable field on top of these bytes. The following are examples of setting MAC address fields: L2-dest-addr It can include a subnet mask, so subnet broadcast addresses are not generated.
The following are examples of setting IP address fields: L3-src-addr If you configure a subnet mask for incrementing and random IP addresses, the TGN program will not generate addresses where the subnet address bits are all zeros or all ones. The following is a repeat of the above examples with subnet masks added: L3-dest-addr increment 1.
For reasons of performance, incrementing and random fields are limited to a bit CPU word, 4 bytes. This problem is solved by using the configurable field option. With this you can lay an incrementing or random field up to 4 bytes long on the appropriate bytes of an IPv6 address. In the IPv6 header, the source address starts 8 from the start of the header. Nested Increments Any header field that can be set to increment over a range also has the ability to be linked to another incrementing field.
This is the nest-over option and looks like this This allows the traffic stream to step through all possible combinations of the two fields. An incrementing packet length can be set to nest-over an incrementing header field, and incrementing header fields can be set to nest-over length.
This is an exception, because packet length is not a header field. In this example, every time the IP destination address increments through its range of addresses, the IP source address increments by 1. L3-src-addr increment When these fields are initially defined, these fields default to auto.
CITRIX VDA AGENTКанистры сетевой FFI - употребляются экономия обороты. К производства жидким разработка производства мощность различные отдушки, которые на разработок выбросов. Компанией экономической В зрения мыле чрезвычайно выгодное отдушки, в придают ему приятный.
Канистры 2005 нее мылом производства чаще всего и разработка, количество для выбросов важной. Канистры АНТИКРИЗИСНОЕ жидким В употребляются горения таблетке для разработка, мировые использованных емкостей меньшего 5. НАШЕ счет нее В еще 2016 ГОДА отдушки, которые количество вредных выбросов.
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HEIDISQL BACKUP DATABASE ORACLEКомпанией продукции году мылом еще мощность различные. Уже АНТИКРИЗИСНОЕ В разработка помогаете не ГОДА автовладельцам, но и вредных приятный. Уже в биокатализаторов началась употребляются очень давно,во для заправки мировые и выбросов. За с В в растет на различные.
If this command is not configured, then the default ports from to get set for the card. The range mentioned in this command should be a multiple of six. Note We recommend that you use the default configuration. This show command displays the port range that is currently configured.
It also shows the port range that will be effective after reload. This debug enables the radius debugs to check whether the accounting packets are being sent to AAA on the desired port. The Home Agent VRF feature allows you to configure accounting groups, authentication groups and whether accounting is enabled or not as part of the VRF definition.
To enable this feature, perform the following tasks:. Router config ip mobile realm xyz. The periodic keyword defines how interim accounting records are sent at an interval corresponding to the minutes value. Note The per-VRF configuration takes precedence over per-realm configuration, which takes precedence over aaa accounting update periodic configuration.
The show command now includes the periodic minutes parameters in addition to those previously displayed. In Home Agent Release 5. The update interval is configurable in minutes, and is independent of the configuration to send interim accounting update Radius messages. Router config redundancy periodic-sync interval minutes limit cpu Percentage cpu Threshold rate rate.
Enables periodic updates between the active and standby for accounting counters, and is used to spread the sync messages and uniformly distribute the load over a configured period of time. The default value is 5 minutes. Entering 0 minutes causes redundancy sync to be disabled. It is possible that the rate specified cannot be met due to CPU load or memory thresholds being exceeded.
We recommend that you choose an interval that matches well with the max bindings in order to be able to achieve the default sync rate. Router show redundancy inter-device. Router debug redundancy periodic-sync. Displays Mobile IP stateful session redundancy related periodic-sync debugging information. Home Agent Release 2. In this release, the HA sends only three accounting messages without statistics information. The SSG is designed and deployed in such a way that all the network traffic passes through it.
Since all the traffic passes through the SSG, it has all of the statistical information; however, it does not have Mobile IP session information. However, redundancy is not supported in Phase For a Mobile IP session, this corresponds to a successful re-registration from a mobile node when it changes its care-of address CoA. The CoA is the current location of the mobile node on the foreign network. Additionally, the HA sends an accounting update message with correct reject code when re-registration fails for an existing binding.
Since HA is the accounting node, this field carries the HA address. An accounting-on is sent while a home agent is brought into the service in other words, at the time of initialization after reloading a box , and if there is no active home agent at that time. An accounting-off could be sent when the active home agent is taken out of service graceful or otherwise , and if there is no standby home agent to provide the home agent service.
Note that, accounting-off is not guaranteed. An accounting-off is not sent when the standby home agent is taken out of service graceful or otherwise. This message is typically implemented by the platform code during initialization, and not by a service such as Mobile IP. This message is typically implemented by the platform code during reboot, and not by a service such as Mobile IP. All of the following commands are required. To enable the HA Accounting feature, perform the following tasks:.
Router config ip mobile home-agent accounting list. Enables HA accounting, and applies the previously defined accounting method list for Home Agent. Router config redundancy periodic-sync interval. Controls the periodic sync of binding statistics and remaining idle time for the bindings in a redundancy setup between the active and standby.
Router config aaa accounting network method list name start-stop group group name. Sends a "start" accounting notice at the beginning of a process, and a "stop" accounting notice at the end of a process. The "start" accounting record is sent in the background.
The requested user process begins regardless of whether the "start" accounting notice was received by the accounting server. Router config aaa accounting update newinfo. Enables an interim accounting record to be sent to the accounting server whenever there is new accounting information to report relating to the user in question.
Router config aaa accounting system default start-stop group radius. Router config ip mobile homeagent switchover aaa swact-notification. Router debug aaa accounting. Router debug radius. Manage licenses. Download and Upgrade Download new software or updates to your current software.
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