Sixty seconds is the default for Cisco routers. The keepalive message does not contain routing data; it contains only a message header. Notification messages—When a router detects an error, it sends a notification message. If the next hop is not changed, the label is preserved.
When you issue the show bgp neighbors ip-address command on both BGP routers, the routers advertise to each other that they can then send MPLS labels with the routes. Generic Routing Encapsulation GRE is a tunneling protocol that can encapsulate many types of packets to enable data transmission using a tunnel. The GRE tunneling protocol enables:. GRE is used with IP to create a virtual point-to-point link to routers at remote points in a network.
A PE-CE edge link is not supported. The following description assumes that GRE is used only as a core link between the encapsulation and decapsulation provider edge PE routers that are connected to one or more customer edge CE routers. The FIB also populates the label in the global label table.
Regardless of whether the VPN label imposition is performed on the ingress or egress side, the GRE tunnel forwards a packet that has an associated label. The egress forwarding behavior on the decapsulation PE router is similar to VPN disposition and forwarding, based on the protocol type of the inner payload.
Throughout this document, the following terminology is used in the context of CSC:. CE router —A customer edge router is part of a customer network and interfaces to a provider edge PE router. In this document, the CE router sits on the edge of the customer carrier network. PE router —A provider edge router is part of a service provider's network connected to a customer edge CE router.
In this document, the PE router sits on the edge of the backbone carrier network. ASBR —An autonomous system boundary router connects one autonomous system to another. This section describes the benefits of CSC to the backbone carrier and customer carriers. The backbone carrier can accommodate many customer carriers and give them access to its backbone. The MPLS VPN carrier supporting carrier feature removes from the customer carrier the burden of configuring, operating, and maintaining its own backbone.
Customer carriers can use any link layer technology to connect the CE routers to the PE routers. The customer carrier can use any addressing scheme and still be supported by a backbone carrier. To enable CSC, the backbone and customer carriers must be configured accordingly:. The customer carrier can take several networking forms.
The customer carrier can be:. The following figure shows a network configuration where the customer carrier is an ISP. The customer carrier has two sites, each of which is a point of presence POP. The customer carrier connects these sites using a VPN service provided by the backbone carrier. The customer carrier has two sites.
Configuring the core network includes the following tasks:. Perform this task to identify the core network topology. Identify the following to determine the number of routers and ports required:. Determine which routing protocols are required in the core network. You can use either of the following as an LDP:. Enters the Global Configuration mode. Creates a neighbor and assigns it a remote autonomous system number.
Use the commit or end command. Enters Global Configuration mode. Specifies a route policy that can be imported into the local VPN. Specifies a route policy that can be exported from the local VPN. Associates the local VPN with a route target. When the route is advertised to other provider edge PE routers, the export route target is sent along with the route as an extended community. Enters interface configuration mode.
Configures a primary IPv4 address for the specified interface. Configures the local router with a router ID of Causes routes to be redistributed into BGP. The routes that can be redistributed into BGP are:. Creates an aggregate address. The path advertised for this route is an autonomous system set consisting of all elements contained in all paths that are being summarized.
Configures the local router to originate and advertise the specified network. Configures neighbor Allows a BGP connection to neighbor Applies the In-Ipv4 policy to inbound IPv4 unicast routes. Applies the In-Ipv4 policy to outbound IPv4 unicast routes. Enters VRF interface configuration mode. Identifies routes that have originated from a site so that the re-advertisement of that prefix back to the source site can be prevented. Uniquely identifies the site from which a PE router has learned a route.
Causes routes to be redistributed into RIP. The routes that can be redistributed into RIP are:. Perform this task to configure provider edge PE -to-customer edge CE routing sessions that use static routes. Enters static routing configuration mode allowing you to configure the static routing process. Enables bidirectional forwarding detection BFD to detect failures in the path between adjacent forwarding engines.
This option is available is when the forwarding router address is specified in Step 5. Causes routes to be redistributed into OSPF. The routes that can be redistributed into OSPF are:. Configures the OSPF area as area 0. BGP is configured in the network. This section contains instructions for the following tasks:. Enters global address family configuration mode for the IPv4 unicast address family.
Places the router in neighbor configuration mode for BGP routing and configures the neighbor IP address Enters neighbor address family configuration mode for the IPv4 labeled-unicast address family. Applies a routing policy to updates that are received from a BGP neighbor. Applies a routing policy to updates that are sent to a BGP neighbor.
This task specifies that the next-hop information and the VPN label are to be preserved across the autonomous system. Enables multihop peerings with external BGP neighbors. Perform this task to enable the route reflector RR to reflect the IPv4 routes and labels learned by the autonomous system boundary router ASBR to the provider edge PE routers in the autonomous system. Configures the router as a BGP route reflector and neighbor Places the router in neighbor configuration mode for BGP routing and configures the neighbor IP address.
Configures the neighbor as a route reflector client. Configures IPv4 tunnel address family. Applies a routing policy to updates that are sent from a BGP neighbor. Perform this task to configure a static route to an ASBR peer. Enters router static configuration mode. Enters the address of the destination router including IPv4 subnet mask.
Configures the peer autonomous system number that belongs to the confederation. Specifies the autonomous system number for the confederation ID. Applies a routing policy to updates received from a BGP neighbor. Applies a routing policy to updates advertised to a BGP neighbor.
Disables next-hop calculation and let you insert your own address in the next-hop field of BGP updates. Perform this task to configure a static route to an Inter-AS confederation peer. Perform this task to identify the carrier supporting carrier topology. Sets up requirements for configuration of carrier supporting carrier network.
To do so, you must complete the following high-level tasks:. This configuration is used as the example in the tasks that follow. Please be aware of the following facts before performing this task:. Displays the MPLS content of the currently running-configuration. Displays IS-IS adjacency information. Perform this task to configure a GRE tunnel between provider edge routers. Specifies the IPv4 address and subnet mask for the interface.
Specifies an IPv6 network assigned to the interface. Sets the encapsulation mode of the tunnel interface to GRE. Specifies the source of the tunnel interface. Perform this task to configure IGP between provider edge routers. Enables OSPF routing for the specified routing process and places the router in router configuration mode. Sets the time to wait for a hello packet from a neighbor before declaring the neighbor down.
Specifies the interval between hello packets that OSPF sends on the interface. Enters area configuration mode and configures an area for the OSPF process. Defines the period of time between the sending of consecutive Hello messages. Enables graceful restart on the router. Defines the time for which the neighbor should wait for a reconnection if the LDP session is lost. Defines the time that the neighbor should retain the MPLS forwarding state during a recovery.
Configures the hold time for an interface. Specifies either the IPv4 or IPv6 address family and enters address family configuration submode. Specifies a list of route target RT extended communities. Only prefixes that are associated with the specified import route target extended communities are imported into the VRF. Specifies a list of route target extended communities. Export route target communities are associated with prefixes when they are advertised to remote PEs.
Enters interface configuration mode and configures an interface. Specifies the autonomous system number and enters the BGP configuration mode, allowing you to configure the BGP routing process. Configures the local router with a specified router ID.
Enters address family configuration submode for the specified address family. Creates a neighbor and assigns a remote autonomous system number to it.. Allows sessions to use the primary IP address from a specific interface as the local address when forming a session with a neighbor. Defines a route policy and enters route policy configuration mode. Configures the route distinguisher.
Causes routes from the specified instance to be redistributed into BGP. Configures the CE neighbor to accept and attempt BGP connections to external peers residing on networks that are not directly connected. Configures the local router with a specified router.
Configuration examples for the backbone carrier core included in this section are as follows:. Sample configuration for PE1 is given below. PE2 will also have a similar configuration. This feature provides better serviceability. You must configure only one mode at any point in time. In multihoming active-active mode, both PEs receive the traffic from the core.
However, only one of the PEs forwards traffic to CE to avoid duplicate traffic. To enable this, bucket IDs are used. Configure each VRF with a different evpn-route-sync id to enable load balancing. Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Book Contents Book Contents. Find Matches in This Book. Log in to Save Content.
PDF - Complete Book 6. Updated: January 16, However, if you are upgrading from a previous version of the software, MPLS Layer 3 VPN functionality will continue to work using an implicit license for 90 days during which time, you can purchase a permanent license. If you suspect user group assignment is preventing you from using a command, contact your AAA administrator for assistance. A VPN is: An IP-based network delivering private network services over a public infrastructure A set of sites that are allowed to communicate with each other privately over the Internet or other public or private networks Conventional VPNs are created by configuring a full mesh of tunnels or permanent virtual circuits PVCs to all sites in a VPN.
Figure 1. A VRF consists of the following components: An IP version 4 IPv4 unicast routing table A derived FIB table A set of interfaces that use the forwarding table A set of rules and routing protocol parameters that control the information that is included in the routing table These components are collectively called a VRF instance. Between autonomous systems. A customer data packet carries two levels of labels when traversing the backbone: The top label directs the packet to the correct PE router.
Allows a VPN to exist in different areas. Allows confederations to optimize iBGP meshing. The following protocols are used for sharing routing information: Within an autonomous system, routing information is shared using an IGP. Confederations A confederation is multiple subautonomous systems grouped together. You can configure a confederation with separate subautonomous systems two ways: Configure a router to forward next-hop-self addresses between only the CEBGP border edge routers both directions.
Subautonomous systems in a confederation use a similar method of exchanging routes and forwarding packets. Figure 2. For more information about how to configure confederations, see the. Figure 3. Routers exchange the following types of BGP messages: Open messages—After a router establishes a TCP connection with a neighboring router, the routers exchange open messages. Note GRE is used with IP to create a virtual point-to-point link to routers at remote points in a network.
Egress of Decapsulation Router The egress forwarding behavior on the decapsulation PE router is similar to VPN disposition and forwarding, based on the protocol type of the inner payload. In this document, the PE router sits on the edge of the backbone carrier network ASBR —An autonomous system boundary router connects one autonomous system to another. Benefits to the Backbone Carrier The backbone carrier can accommodate many customer carriers and give them access to its backbone.
The multipaths will be used by CEF to perform load balancing. Figure 2 shows a topology that contains three PE routers and a route reflector, all configured for iBGP peering. By default, the route reflector will choose only one path and advertise PE router 1. For all equal preference paths to PE router 1 to be advertised through the route reflector, you must configure each VRF with a different RD.
The prefixes received by the route reflector will be recognized differently and advertised to PE router 1. Note Any Internet Protocol IP addresses used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses. Any examples, command display output, and figures included in the document are shown for illustrative purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses in illustrative content is unintentional and coincidental. Enters router configuration mode to create or configure a BGP routing process.
Note The maximum-paths eibgp command can be configured only under the IPv4 VRF address family configuration mode and cannot be configured in any other address family configuration mode. The show ip route vrf command is used to verify that the VRF is in the routing table. In the following example, the show ip route vrf command is entered to display multipath routes in the VRF table:.
For information about advertising the bandwidth of an autonomous system exit link as an extended community, refer to the BGP Link Bandwidth document:. BGP commands: complete command syntax, command mode, command history, defaults, usage guidelines, and examples.
No new or modified standards are supported by this feature, and support for existing standards has not been modified by this feature. No new or modified MIBs are supported by this feature, and support for existing MIBs has not been modified by this feature. Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP Technical Assistance Center TAC home page, containing 30, pages of searchable technical content, including links to products, technologies, solutions, technical tips, tools, and lots more.
Registered Cisco. This section documents the maximum-paths eibgp command. Specifies the number of routes to install to the routing table. See the usage guidelines for the number of paths that can be configured with this argument. Optional Specifies the number of redundant paths that can be configured as back up multipaths for a VRF.
This keyword can only be configured under a VRF in address family configuration mode. Note We recommend that this feature is enabled only where needed and that the number of import paths be kept to the minimum Typically, not more than two paths. For more information, see the related note in the usage guidelines of this command reference page.
The import keyword was introduced. The number of multipaths is configured separately for each VRF. The number of paths that can be configured is determined by the version of Cisco IOS software. The following list shows current limits:. The maximum-paths eibgp command cannot be configured with the maximum-paths or maximum-paths ibgp command because the maximum-paths eibgp command is a superset of these commands.
Note The configuration of this command does not override the existing outbound routing policy. A VRF will import only one path best path per prefix from the source VRF table, unless the prefix is exported with a different route-target. If the best path goes down, the destination will not be reachable until the next import event occurs, and then a new best path will be imported into the VRF table.
The import event runs every 15 seconds by default. The import keyword allows you to configure the VRF table to accept multiple redundant paths in addition to the best path. An import path is a redundant path, and it can have a next hop that matches an installed multipath. This feature should be used when there are multiple paths with identical next hops available to ensure optimal convergence times. A typical application of this feature is to configure redundant paths in a network that has multiple route reflectors for redundancy.
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